Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Others; freshwater; brackish. Subtropical
Indo-Pacific, Mediterranean and the Arctic. Subtropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 46.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 404.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 3.54 cm; wing: 35.1 cm.
Total Length: 40 to 46 cm; Wingspan: 119 to 122 cm (Ref. 8812). Coastal. Displays dipping behavior. Exhibits kleptoparasitism (Ref. 356). Yolk formation takes 5 to 8 days. Reported rearing of two broods in a breeding season. Fostering behavior where foster parents and foster chicks are closely related. Decline in population as an adverse effect of the introduction of American mink (Mustela vison) in the United Kingdom (Ref. 87784).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Lepage, D. 2007. (Ref. 7816)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 4.6 - 15.1, mean 9.1 (based on 1464 cells).
Moderate vulnerability (36 of 100)