Gastropoda | Cephalaspidea
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 16 - 2355 m (Ref. 118694), usually 200 - 1752 m (Ref. 3446). Subtropical; 68°N - 35°N, 70°W - 0°W (Ref. 3446)
Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean and the Arctic. Subtropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 0.6 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 3446)
Maximum depth from Ref. 113590. Found on clay, sand, coarse sand, shell sand, rocks and gravel. Observed to contain forams in their guts (Ref. 113590). Members of the order Cephalaspidea are mostly simultaneous hermaphrodites (Ref. 833).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the order Cephalaspidea are mostly simultaneous hermaphrodites.
Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione and J.D. Willams. 1998. (Ref. 1667)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 3.3 - 10.4, mean 4.6 (based on 496 cells).
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)