Demospongiae | Poecilosclerida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sessile; brackish; depth range 1 - 91 m (Ref. 108813). Tropical
Indo-Pacific and Western Atlantic: Caribbean wide.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 415)
Sprawling ramose branches, with spiky surface up to 60 cm long; 1 - 5 cm wide. Black with green patches internally and externally. Oscula 0.1 - 0.3 cm in diameter, on side of branches (Ref. 415). Smaller specimens grows as lobes, runners, massive or encrusting. Surface: covered with conules; mostly or entirely smooth for small specimens. Sometimes greenish-yellow. Tough consistency; resilient and barely compressible. Exudate is dark purplish when squeezed. Oscules are scattered or in a row, slightly raised on small lobes and surrounded by a thin collar (Ref. 85482).
Reef; mangrove; seagrass environments (Ref. 415). On hard substrates, often hosting the zoanthid Parazoanthus swiftii (Ref. 85482). Commensal with amphipods (Ref. 82302). Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge (Ref. 833).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge.
Collin, R., M.C. DÃaz, J. Norenburg, R.M. Rocha, J.A. SÃ¡nchez, M. Schulze, A. Schwartz and A. ValdÃ©s. 2005. (Ref. 415)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 23.9 - 28.9, mean 27.5 (based on 1216 cells).
Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100)