Malacostraca | Decapoda
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 0 - 150 m (Ref. 4), usually ? - 50 m (Ref. 4). Subtropical, preferred 12°C (Ref. 107945); 69°N - 29°N, 28°W - 32°E (Ref. 4)
Northeast Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea. Not in east of Crete and in the Baltic Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 1.0, range 1 - 1 cm Max length : 65.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 441); common length : 40.0 cm BASL male/unsexed; (Ref. 441); max. published weight: 6.0 kg (Ref. 4)
Common total length: 23 to 50 cm. Occurs on the continental shelf at depths of 0 to 150 m, usually not deeper than 50 m. Found on hard substrates such as rock or hard mud. Nocturnal and territorial living in holes or crevices. Females with eggs are usually found throughout the year. The eggs are laid around July and carried for 10 to 11 months (Ref. 4). Indiscriminate scavengers, omnivorous or carnivorous. Feeds primarily on malacostracan crustaceans, gastropod molluscs, and polychaete annelids; but diet known to include carrion, echinoderms, lamellibranchs and plant matter (Ref. 96319).
Females with eggs are usually found throughout the year. The eggs are laid around July and carried for 10 to 11 months (Ref. 4). Coupling occurs a few days after the female molts (Ref. 80921).
Holthuis, L.B. 1991. (Ref. 4)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial; aquaculture: experimental
FAO - Fisheries: landings, species profile | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 7.7 - 13.3, mean 10.4 (based on 494 cells).
Prior r = 0.37, 95% CL = 0.25 - 0.56, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100)