Mammalia | Carnivora
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Bathydemersal. Temperate; 90°N - 90°S, 130°E - 120°W
Pacific Ocean, Black Sea and the Arctic. Boreal to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 180 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1394); max. published weight: 148.0 kg (Ref. 1394)
Feeds on several species of fish and crustaceans (Ref. 1394). Physiology indicates adaptability to life in the open ocean. In spring and early summer, they prefer the continental shelf slope, hauling out on ice near or over deeper water. Feeds intensively during ice-free and winter months, wherein diet is suggested to be based on distribution and potential prey. Mainly consumes pelagic and nektobenthic prey (Ref. 119413). Feeds on several species of fish and crustaceans (Ref. 1394).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood and M.A. Webber. 1993. (Ref. 1394)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO(fisheries: production) | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): -0.4 - 4.9, mean 2.4 (based on 2322 cells).
Moderate to high vulnerability (46 of 100)