Priapulomorpha | Not assigned
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; brackish; depth range 200 - 200 m (Ref. 422). Polar
Northwest Pacific, Northern Atlantic and the Arctic. Subtropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Always restricted to coastal waters and is never found deeper than ca. 200 m (Ref. 422). Burrows in sediments down to 30 cm depth; burrows may have several openings. Has sedentary life strategy. Can withstand hypoxia and environment with hydrogen sulfide for prolonged periods (Ref. 115950). Mainly carnivorous and known to feed on polychaetes, oligochaetes, crustaceans, chironomids, other H. spinulosus, undetermined eggs, and detritus (assumed as a minor energy source) (Ref. 95778). Surface deposit feeder (Ref. 66387). Members of the phylum Priapulida are gonochoric. Life cycle: Eggs develop into benthic priapulid larvae before turning into adult (Ref. 833).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the phylum Priapulida are gonochoric. Life cycle: Eggs develop into benthic priapulid larvae before turning into adult.
Saldarriaga, J.F. and V. Storch. 1997. (Ref. 422)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models