Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Indo-West Pacific, Southwest Atlantic and the Antarctic. Subtropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 67.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 84934); max. published weight: 5.4 kg (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 5.55 cm; tarsus: 2.4 cm.
Total population is estimated at 200,00 pairs, currently stable. This is a gregarious species, that breeds in large colonies in rocky coasts (Ref. 91362). Pursuit diving (Ref. 356).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Harrison, P. 1987. (Ref. 91362)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models