Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Southwest Pacific: New Zealand.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 62.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 91362); max. published weight: 3.4 kg (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 4.765 cm; tarsus: 2.385 cm.
Total population is about 5,000 to 10,000 pairs, wherein 50 percent are breeding pairs. Mainland colonies are threatened by stoats, rats, and dogs (Ref. 84934). This species is known to be loosely colonial and breeds in temperate rainforests (Ref. 91362), where there is a dense vegetation and caves (Ref. 84934). It lays in winter and rears in spring (Ref. 84934). Pursuit diving (Ref. 356).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Harrison, P. 1987. (Ref. 91362)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
Moderate vulnerability (42 of 100)