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Enhydrina schistosa   Daudin, 1803

beaked sea snake

Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Enhydrina schistosa  AquaMaps  Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Enhydrina schistosa (beaked sea snake)
Enhydrina schistosa
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drawing shows typical species in this Family.

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Reptilia | Squamata | Hydrophiidae

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Reef-associated; depth range 3 - 22 m (Ref. 78387).  Tropical; 31°N - 58°S (Ref. 356)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Indo-West Pacific.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm 74.5, range 47 - 101.5 cm Max length : 140 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 801); common length : 110 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 801)

Short description Morphology

Young has gray to black annuli, while juveniles has 45-55 transverse bars that may extend down the flanks with the lower body whitish and without pattern. Adults are uniform gray above, whitish below. Dark bars wider or as wide than paler interspaces.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Average length is 90 cm. The venom of this snake is said to be responsible for more serious and fatal bites than all other sea snakes combined and is considered to have the most toxic venom. Based on studies, the myotoxic phospholipase A from the venom causes myoglobinuria in mice (Ref. 88062). Usually occurs in clear shallow reef waters (Ref. 2357), and may travel about ten miles up tidal rivers (Ref. 88062). Also prefers estuarine conditions in Australia (Ref. 2357). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 801), with 4 to 9 young ones in a brood (Ref. 88062). Feeds on fish (Refs. 801, 88062). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 801). It bears 4 to 9 young ones in a brood (Ref. 88062).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Ovoviviparous (Ref. 801). It bears 4 to 9 young ones in a brood (Ref. 88062).

Main reference References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Redfield, J.A., J.C. Holmes and R.D. Holmes. 1978. (Ref. 78387)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES status (Ref. 108899)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 88062)

Human uses

Fisheries: of no interest
| FishSource |

More information

FAO areas
Food items
Common names
Egg development
Mass conversion

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(Publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | PubMed | Tree of Life | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.8 - 29.3, mean 28.5 (based on 3251 cells).
Vulnerability (Ref. 71543)
Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)