Cephalopoda | Octopoda
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 8 - 496 m (Ref. 114857). Subtropical; 46°N - 30°N, 10°W - 36°E (Ref. 275)
Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 1.0, range 1 - 1 cm Max length : 19.4 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 77087); max. published weight: 1.4 kg (Ref. 77087)
Maximum total length is 74 cm (Ref. 77087). Minimum depth range from Ref. 77087. Widely distributed on the continental shelf (Ref. 106855). Prefers soft bottoms (Ref. 1976) over Posidonia beds (Ref. 77087). Also found on muddy bottoms. Active and opportunistic predator (Ref. 105095). Mainly consumes crustaceans, fish and cephalopods. Exhibits cannibalism occasionally and at larger sizes (Ref. 105096).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults.
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO - Fisheries: landings | FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 13.3 - 17, mean 14.7 (based on 132 cells).
Prior r = 0.54, 95% CL = 0.35 - 0.81, Based on 1 stock assessment.
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)