Cephalopoda | Octopoda
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 5 - 500 m (Ref. 96968), usually 60 - 120 m (Ref. 96968). Subtropical, preferred 18°C (Ref. 107945); 70°N - 30°N, 26°W - 22°E (Ref. 275)
Northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 11.1, range 7 - 16.5 cm Max length : 55.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 96968); max. published weight: 1.2 kg (Ref. 275)
Occurs from sand and mud, to broken rock and rocky reefs (Ref. 96968). Females predominate at depths of 30 to 80 m, males at depths below 100 m (Ref. 275).
Male spermatangia reach ovary before the release of sperms (Ref. 2569). Also Ref. 80232.
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 127697)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
FAO - Fisheries: landings | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 6.8 - 14.3, mean 9.7 (based on 658 cells).
Prior r = 0.54, 95% CL = 0.36 - 0.82, Based on 4 stock assessments.
Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100).