Echinoidea | Echinoida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 96312). Temperate, preferred 10°C (Ref. 107945); 81°N - 38°N, 43°W - 30°E
Northeast Atlantic: From Svalbard, UK and the Faeroes, east to the North Sea, Skagerrak and Kattegat to Finnmark, Norway, north to Greenland and Iceland and south to Portugal. Temperate to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 17.6 cm WD male/unsexed; (Ref. 101443); max. reported age: 8 years (Ref. 101443)
It is found on the upper subtidal, and intertidally on low spring tides from depths of 0 to 100 meters. They graze and feed on a variety of plant and animal material (Ref. 96312). Small eggs, seasonally produced, spawning varies with latitude (Ref. 96312).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Small eggs, seasonally produced, spawning varies with latitude (Ref. 96312).
Harms, J. 1993. (Ref. 2711)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO(fisheries: production) | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 7.5 - 12.4, mean 10.3 (based on 538 cells).