Cephalopoda | Myopsida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthopelagic; depth range 0 - 400 m (Ref. 275). Tropical; 10°C - 14°C (Ref. 275), preferred 21°C (Ref. 107945); 50°N - 8°N, 98°W - 53°W (Ref. 275)
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 1.0  range ? - ? cm Max length : 50.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 275); 40 cm ML (female)
Common mantle length: 10.0 to 20.0 cm (Ref. 275, 3722). This is a neritic species found on sandy bottoms and along the water column (Ref. 83938). On coastal surface, epipelagic (Ref. 110525). Spends winter at depths of 100 to 200 m (Ref. 843). Overwinter along the continental shelf in offshore canyons as far south as Cape Hatteras (Ref. 106883).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults.
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO - Fisheries: landings, species profile | FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 5.9 - 26.3, mean 19.4 (based on 245 cells).
Low to moderate vulnerability (26 of 100)