Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; depth range 5 - 25 m (Ref. 2758). Temperate; 61°N - 12°N, 18°W - 44°E (Ref. 78075)
Eastern Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Red Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 1.8  range ? - ? cm Max length : 4.4 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 2758); common length : 2.0 cm SHL male/unsexed; (Ref. 437)
Depth based on occurrence (Ref. 2758, p. 805); to be replaced with better reference. Minimum depth from Ref. 2703. Common; subtidal in sand (Ref. 437). Inhabits fine well sorted clean sand (Ref. 2780). Gonochoric (Ref. 82312).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Fischer, W., G. Bianchi and W.B. Scott (eds.). 1981. (Ref. 437)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 12.4 - 21.6, mean 19 (based on 746 cells).
Low vulnerability (20 of 100)