Aves | Charadriiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Others; freshwater; brackish. Tropical
Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean and the Arctic.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 24.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 65.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 2.74 cm; tarsus: 1.69 cm; wing: 21.35 cm.
Total Length: 22 to 24 cm; Wingspan: 66 cm (Ref. 8812, 84934). They disperse south to winter at sea on both coasts of South America and West Africa. Breeding occurs in Canada and North America, and in Europe from southern Scandinavia to Spain, eastwards across Europe and Asia to the Chinese border. Total population is approximately 500,000 pairs with majority in Russia and possibly 100,000 pairs in North America. Population decline is due to land reclamation for agriculture (Ref. 84934). Dipping; coastal; <4 km (Ref. 356). Found on beach, shoreline, nearshore and in islands (Ref. 116102). Black terns belong to the habitat category of nesting and foraging in inland habitats and come to the coasts during non-breeding season (Ref. 87784). It hawks for insects over land on mild, still days, but in cooler, windier weather they stay over the sea (Ref. 87787). Breeds colonially on well-vegetated inland lakes, marshes and peat bogs (Ref. 84934).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Stiles, F.G. 1984. (Ref. 5856)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
Low vulnerability (14 of 100)