Polychaeta | Not assigned
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; brackish; depth range 0 - 2700 m (Ref. 119523). Polar; 27°C - 28°C (Ref. 87155)
Cosmopolitan: mainly in the northern hemisphere. Tropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 8.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 75621)
Length based on occurrence record. Megabenthic species (Ref. 2952). Found in all sediment types but particularly in coarse to very fine substrate, very rarely in sediment without mud (Refs. 7882, 96352). Known from rocky shores, seagrass beds, cold seeps, hydrothermal vents, oxygen-minimum zones, whale carcasses. Depth ranges from intertidal, infralittoral, circalittoral to bathyal along gulfs and estuaries (Refs. 87155, 96352). Feeding type can vary from being a carnivore to a detritus feeder, to a grazer (Ref. 87155). Treated as a marine organic pollution indicator (Ref. 96352).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Polychaeta are mostly gonochoric (sexual). Mating: Females produce a pheromone attracting and signalling the males to shed sperm which in turn stimulates females to shed eggs, this behavior is known as swarming. Gametes are spawned through the metanephridia or body wall rupturing (termed as "epitoky", wherein a pelagic, reproductive individual, "epitoke", is formed from a benthic, nonreproductive individual, "atoke"). After fertilization, most eggs become planktonic; although some are retained in the worm tubes or burrowed in jelly masses attached to the tubes (egg brooders). Life Cycle: Eggs develop into trocophore larva, which later metamorph into juvenile stage (body lengthened), and later develop into adults.
López-Jamar, E., G. González and J. Mejuto. 1986. (Ref. 2778)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 127697)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 1.1 - 14.2, mean 5.9 (based on 1762 cells).
Low vulnerability (10 of 100).