Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Others; brackish. Tropical
Western Central Pacific, Atlantic and the Arctic: Palau, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Russia. Tropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Found on the beach and shoreline (Ref. 116102). During winter it occurs on coastal brackish lagoons, tidal sand and mudflats, estuaries, salt marshes, exposed coral, rocky shores and on sandy beaches (Ref. 107910).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Engbring, J. 1983. (Ref. 102970)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 25.2 - 29.3, mean 28.7 (based on 1625 cells).