Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Others; freshwater; brackish. Temperate
Pacific, Atlantic, Western Indian Ocean and the Arctic. Temperate to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 94965)
Found on beach, shoreline, bay and nearshore (Ref. 116102). Biotic pollution from ship ballast water resulting in the spread of the plant Spartina anglica traced to decline of this species particularly on estuaries where it limits this shorebird's habitat use (Ref. 87784). Feeds on crustaceans, molluscs, polychaetes and insects as well as plant matter (Ref. 108096).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Gaydos, J.K. and S.F. Pearson. 2011. (Ref. 93905)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 3.5 - 22.3, mean 9 (based on 2035 cells).