Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Others; freshwater; brackish. Tropical
Indo-Pacific, Antarctic and the Arctic. Tropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 22.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 94965)
Found on the beach (Ref. 87921), shoreline, bay and nearshore (Ref. 116102). In small groups at the water's edge during nonbreeding season, following the wave front whilst feeding on small invertebrates. Abundance of wintering populations attributed to major coastal upwellings, correlated to increase in food supply along beaches where they feed. Shorebirds from the North Atlantic typically fly >2000 km, mostly over water, from North America, Greenland, and Iceland, to Britain and continental Europe. Vulnerable to oil spill as a piscivore; saw 50% decline in population from 1989 in Prince William Sound after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (Ref. 87784).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Brooke, M. de L., I. Hepburn and R.J. Travelyan. 2004. (Ref. 87921)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 4.2 - 23.2, mean 9.5 (based on 1808 cells).