Gastropoda | Neogastropoda
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Benthic; brackish; depth range 0 - 114 m (Ref. 83435). Temperate; 42°N - 28°N, 81°W - 69°W (Ref. 83435)
Western Atlantic and Eastern Central Pacific: USA; from Cape Cod, Massachusetts to Cape Canaveral Florida (Ref. 101514). Introduced to San Francisco Bay, CA. Subtropical to temperate.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm 15.5  range ? - ? cm Max length : 20.1 cm DL male/unsexed; (Ref. 83435)
Maximum depth from Ref. 104442. On intertidal flats and seaside lagoons (Ref. 104331). Inhabits sand and sand-mud bottoms, often entirely buried in sediments. Sometimes seen on mussel or oyster beds while foraging. Active at low light, mostly at night during summer months. Both an active predator and scavenger. Capable of readily detecting food in its vicinity (Ref. 101546) by sensing the water the prey pumps out (Ref. 105269). Primarily feeds on bivalves (Ref. 101546) such as mussels and oysters (Ref. 105269). Copulation is evident. Life cycle: Embryos develop into planktonic trocophore larvae and later into juvenile veligers before becoming fully grown adults (Ref. 833).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Copulation is evident. Life cycle: Embryos develop into planktonic trocophore larvae and later into juvenile veligers before becoming fully grown adults (Ref. 833).
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum. 2005. (Ref. 19)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 8.5 - 24.6, mean 14.2 (based on 108 cells).