Aves | Charadriiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Pacific Ocean: California to the Aleutian Islands. Boreal to subtropical.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 25.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 202.50 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 1.6 cm; tarsus: 1.59 cm; wing: 12.7 cm.
An endangered species. Nesting habitat protected under ESA in the U.S. (Ref. 87784). Total Length: 24 to 25 cm (Ref. 8812). Coastal; can be found offshore up to 300 km; thermal fronts, water <30 m deep; glacial-affected. Pursuit divers (Ref. 356). Crepuscular to nocturnal. Mate prospecting thru display and calls; nocturnal vocal displays minimal. Direct or indirect intra- and interspecific competition for nest sites. Nests in trees (Ref. 87784). Breeding pairs maintain isolation from colony until the eggs are laid (Ref. 95051). Feeds on hatchery-released pink salmon and chum salmon in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Population decline associated with mortality in fishing nets (Ref. 87784). Reproductive productivity of the species in Salish Sea declined by at most 50% over the past 150 years (Ref. 95036).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Reproductive productivity of the species in Salish Sea declined by at most 50% over the past 150 years (Ref. 95036).
Hirsch, K.V., D.A. Woodby and L.B. Astheimer. 1981. (Ref. 8541)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 5.6 - 13, mean 8.5 (based on 451 cells).
Low vulnerability (15 of 100)