Ascidiacea | Stolidobranchia
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Sessile; depth range 0 - 100 m (Ref. 1603). Temperate; 71°N - 38°S, 180°W - 180°E
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 5.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1603)
Assumed maximum total length of zooids from Ref. 1603, 2268. Width of encrusting colonies is 10 cm (Ref. 7726). Attached to hard substrata; mainly in shallow water but occasionally to depths of several hundred meters (Ref. 1603). Common encrusting form in shallow subtidal waters on hard surfaces, and covers algae (Ref. 7726). Trophic level: 1.4-1.8; filter-feeder (Ref. 96418).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Ascidiacea are hermaphroditic; both cross- and self-fertilization is typical. Life cycle: Eggs develop into lecithotrophic larva before metamorphosing into benthic adults.
Jagerskiold, L.A. 1971. (Ref. 1369)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 8.1 - 19.4, mean 11.7 (based on 1362 cells).
Low vulnerability (10 of 100).