Holothuroidea | Aspidochirotida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Reef-associated; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 122), usually 2 - 10 m (Ref. 92930). Tropical; 32°N - 27°S, 32°E - 134°W
Indo-Pacific, including the Red Sea, but excluding Hawaii.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 60.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 122); common length : 36.0 cm male/unsexed; (Ref. 122); max. published weight: 2.2 kg (Ref. 122)
Mean live weight: 1,800 g up to 2,200 g. Body-wall thickness: 0.1 cm. Body cylindrical, arched dorsally (bivium) and the flattened ventrally (trivium). Bivium smooth. Podia on bivium small, conical , and irregularly arranged; podia on trivium numerous, short, and arranged on the radii and interradii; calcareous disc of podia around 400 micrometer in diameter. Mouth ventral, surrounded by 20 short, dark tentacles. Anus nearly dorsal, surrounded by 5 groups of papillae. Calcareous ring with large radial pieces and narrow interradials. Cuvierian tubules numerous; large. Bivium whitish to brown, variable among specimens and showing characteristics dark eye-like some specimens uniformly brown with yellow spots. Spicules on ventral tegument with various simple rosettes and biscuit-like nodules, occasionally with small hole; dorsal tegument with rosettes only; ventral podia with short rods; dorsal podia with x-shaped rods; tentacles with spiny rods and large irregular plates.
Populations never reach high densities (generally between 0.001 and 0.01 per square meter). Occasionally collected by divers in artisanal fisheries, although the sticky Cuvierian tubules make the collection and processing disagreeable. Processed product is not distinguished from those of other Bohadschia species; little commercial value. Found in shallow waters; a typical reef species, generally on barrier reef flats and slopes, or outer lagoons on white sand (Ref. 122). On coarse sand near reef structures. Capable of burrowing into upper sediments (Ref. 92930). Symbiotic pearlfish (Carapidae, Ophidiiformes) are often found in the respiratory tree or the general cavity (Ref. 122). Sexual reproduction probably takes place during the warm season (Ref. 122).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Sexual reproduction probably takes place during the warm season.
Conand, C. 1998. (Ref. 122)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 24.6 - 29.3, mean 28.4 (based on 3403 cells).
Moderate vulnerability (44 of 100)