Cephalopoda | Bathyteuthida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Pelagic; depth range 100 - 4200 m (Ref. 275), usually 700 - 2000 m (Ref. 275). Polar; 45°N - 70°S, 151°W - 60°W (Ref. 275)
Antarctic to Pacific, Atlantic, Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?, range 1 - 1 cm Max length : 7.5 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 104052)
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults.
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 2.1 - 5.2, mean 3.2 (based on 199 cells).
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)