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Atrina vexillum   (Born, 1778)

Flag pen shell

Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Atrina vexillum  AquaMaps  Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Atrina vexillum (Flag pen shell)
Atrina vexillum
Picture by Poppe, Guido and Philippe

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Bivalvia | Pteriida | Pinnidae

Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range Ecology

Benthic; depth range 0 - 50 m (Ref. 75831).  Tropical

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Indo-Pacific: from East Africa, including Madagascar, the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, to eastern Polynesia; north to Japan and Hawaii, and south to Queensland and New Caledonia.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 48.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 348); common length : 30.0 cm SL male/unsexed; (Ref. 348)

Short description Morphology

Shell reaching a very large size, thick and solid, inflated, variable in shape from triangular to hatchet-shaped or subglobular. Dorsal margin usually nearly straight, posterior margin broadly oval to somewhat truncate in outline. Ventral margin broadly convex posteriorly and concave near the umbones, often strongly lobate in medium-sized and large specimens. Outside of valves with 10 to 17 main radial ribs, often bearing scale-like spines, and with weaker interstitial riblets. Internal nacreous layer moderately strong, undivided, occupying the anterior half or 2/3 of valves. Hind margin of posterior adductor scar slightly protruding beyond the nacreous area (protrusion of adductor scar more developed in mature specimens). Colour: outside of shell dark reddish brown to nearly black, usually dull. Shell material semitranslucent, appearing a rich reddish purple when viewed with transmitted light. Interior dark brown to black, iridescent on nacreous area.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Because it attains a large size, this common species is probably one of the most economically important members of the family in the Indo-West Pacific. Beautiful but fragile black pearls are sometimes produced by the animal (Ref. 348). Found in intertidal areas in sand and mud (Ref. 75831).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

Members of the class Bivalvia are mostly gonochoric, some are protandric hermaphrodites. Life cycle: Embryos develop into free-swimming trocophore larvae, succeeded by the bivalve veliger, resembling a miniature clam.

Main reference References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Poutiers, J.M. 1998. (Ref. 348)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 124695)


CITES status (Ref. 108899)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Harmless

Human uses

Fisheries: commercial
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More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Common names
Synonyms
Predators
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Morphology
Larvae
Abundance
References
Mass conversion

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(Publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | Gomexsi | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | PubMed | Tree of Life | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Preferred temperature (Ref. 115969): 24.2 - 29.1, mean 28 (based on 1288 cells).
Vulnerability (Ref. 71543)
Moderate vulnerability (38 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Unknown