Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Others; freshwater; brackish. Boreal
Northeast Pacific: Canada.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 130 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 94965)
Eagle-sized wingspan; grey-blue plumage; long, dagger-like yellow-bill; red thighs (Ref. 94965).
Dependent on healthy, uncontaminated coastal wetlands and estuaries for feeding. Wades in shallow water whilst foraging. Forms colonies. Piscivorous. In Florida Bay, natural feeding supplemented by "panhandling" association with humans where they feed on bait fish from locals and developed begging behavior from residents. In Stanley Park Zoo in Vancouver, British Columbia, a large colony is able to persist in close proximity to human activities for over 78 years. In Florida Bay, population decline of 30-40% due to hurricanes were linked to nesting and foraging habitat degradation (Ref. 87784). Colonies in the Strait of Georgia have high rates of reproductive success (Ref. 95040).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Colonies in the Strait of Georgia have high rates of reproductive success (Ref. 95040).
Elliott, J.E., R.W. Butler, R.J. Norstrom and P.E. Whitehead. 1989. (Ref. 95040)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 119314)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models