Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Indo-Pacific, Southern Atlantic and the Antarctic.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 95.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 12.7 kg (Ref. 356)
Total population of the species is over 1 million pairs (Ref. 84934). This is a gregarious species, the breeds twice every three years in large colonies (Ref. 91362), mainly in oceanic island groups (Ref. 84934). It is known to be pelagic during the breeding season (Ref. 91362). Pursuit diving (Ref. 356).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Harrison, P. 1987. (Ref. 91362)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 127697)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
High vulnerability (58 of 100).