Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Southeast Pacific, Southwest Atlantic and the Antarctic Indian Ocean. Subtropical to polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 115 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 33.4 kg (Ref. 356)
This is a highly gregarious species that breeds on ice-shelves during Antarctic winter (Ref. 91362, 84934), colonially (Ref. 84934). Pursuit diving (Ref. 356).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Enticott, J. and D. Tipling. 1997. (Ref. 84934)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 123251)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
High to very high vulnerability (69 of 100)