Aves | Charadriiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Pelagic; depth range 0 - 2 m (Ref. 119695). Tropical; 34°N - 47°S, 180°W - 180°E
Indo-Pacific, Atlantic and Antarctic Indian Ocean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 167.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 4.16 cm; tarsus: 5.715 cm; wing: 28.1 cm.
Total Length: 40 to 45 cm; Wingspan: 79 to 86 cm (Ref. 8812, 84934). Total population is 300,000 to 500,000 pairs. Tropical populations are sedentary while subtropical populations are more dispersive (Ref. 84934). Found nearshore to <100 km offshore (Ref. 356). Breeds aseasonally and colonially on cliffs, flat beaches, bare ground, and in bushes and trees on tropical and subtropical islands (Ref. 84934, 87784). Double-brooded (Ref. 84934). Highly pelagic and gregarious. Typically in large feeding flocks far out at sea over shoals of predatory fish (Ref. 91362). Foraging behavior includes dipping and snatching food from the sea surface (Refs. 356, 84934, 87784) rarely plunge-diving or settling on water (Ref. 84934, 87784, 91362).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Enticott, J. and D. Tipling. 1997. (Ref. 84934)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 127697)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100).