Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Eastern Pacific and Western Atlantic.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 19.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 87872)
Beach and shoreline, and bay and nearshore (Ref. 116102). Exhibits "resource defense polyandry" mating system. Females larger than males by about 20-25% and is the dominant sex; male and female pair defend territory where they nest, rear their brood and forage for food. After laying the third egg of the 4-egg clutch, females start prospecting for new mates. Males generally incubate and care for brood. Female will desert the previous mate when she finds a new male; may mate with up to 4 males; and may lay up to 5 clutches in a single breeding season. Nesting behavior involves the male scraping the ground several times to form nest cups, and collecting and lining it with small pieces of dry vegetation; only once formed will the female begin laying in one of them. This allows the female to continue foraging while producing eggs. (Ref. 95153). Feeds mainly on terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates (Ref. 95152). Breeds from Newfoundland and Labrador to Alaska north to the limit of trees south to North Carolina, Texas, and California. Winters from the southern part of its breeding range south through Mexico and Central America to Chile and Brazil in South America (Ref. 87872).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Breeds from Newfoundland and Labrador to Alaska north to the limit of trees south to North Carolina, Texas, and California. Winters from the southern part of its breeding range south through Mexico and Central America to Chile and Brazil in South America (Ref. 87872).
Kennedy, M.K., L. Van Guelpen, G. Pohle and L. Bajona (eds.). 2010. (Ref. 87872)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 120744)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models