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References used for species in the Family Cucumariidae
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[ n = 108 ] 
Alva, V., 1991 On three species of Mediterranean echinoderms. Sci. Mar. 55(2):459-462.
Alvarado, J.J. and J. Cortés, 2009 Echinoderms. pp. 421-434. In I.S. Wehrtmann, J. Cortés (eds.) Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica, Central America. Springer 538 p.
Arnaud, P.M., 1974 Contribution à la bionomie marine benthique des régions antarctiques et subantarctiques. Téthys 6(3):467-653.
Backe, N., S. Davies, K. Conley, G. Kosmider, G. Rasmussen, H. Ibey and K. Ladell, 2011 Race Rocks (XwaYeN) proposed marine protected area ecosystem overview and assessment report. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2949:30p.
Barr, W., 1988 The Helgoland Expedition to Svalbard: Die Deutsche Expedition in das Nordliche Eismeer, 1898. Arctic 41(3):203-214.
Base de dados tropical, 2003 Invertebrados marinhos registrados no litoral brasileiro. Echinodermata recentes e fόsseies do Brasil.
Besteiro, C. and V. Urgorri, 1988 Inventario dos Equinodermos de Galicia. (Echinodermata). Cadernos da Área de Ciencies Biolóxicas INVENTARIOS. Seminario de Estudos Galegos 1:1-51.
Birkeland, C., 1974 Interactions between a sea pen and seven of its predators. Ecological Monographs 44:211-232.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Blanchard, A.L., C.L. Parris, A.L. Knowlton and N.R. Wade, 2013 Benthic ecology of the northeastern Chukchi Sea. Part II. Spatial variation of megafaunal community structure, 2009-2010. Cotinental Shelf Research 67:67-76.
Branch, G.M., C.L. Griffiths, M.L. Branch and L. Beckley, 2005 Two oceans: a guide to marine life in southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, 360 p.
Brawn, V.M., D.L. Peer and R.J. Bentley, 1968 Caloric content of the standing crop of benthic and epibenthic invertebrates of St. Margaret’s Bay, Nova Scotia. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 25:1803-1811.
Chang, F.-Y., 1935 Additions to the holothurians of the Chinese coast. Contributions from the Institute of Zoology National Academy of Peiping 2:3:1-18.
Chao, S.-M., C.-P. Chen and P.S. Alexander, 1995 Reproductive cycles of tropical sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) in southern Taiwan. Mar. Biol. 122(2):289-295.
Cherbonnier, G., 1973 Invertébrés marins des XII^ème et XV^ème Expéditions Antarctiques Françaises en Terre Adélie. 15. Holothurides. TETHYS 5(4):601-610.
Cherbonnier, G. and A. Guille, 1975 Échinodermes récoltés aux íles Kerguelen. Bull. Mus. Natn. Hist. natn. 210:600-644.
Collin, R., M.C. Díaz, J. Norenburg, R.M. Rocha, J.A. Sánchez, M. Schulze, A. Schwartz and A. Valdés, 2005 Photographic identification guide to some common marine invertebrates of Bocas Del Toro, Panama. Caribbean Journal of Science. 41(3):638-707.
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley, 1971 Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition).
Cusson, M., P. Archambault and A. Aitken, 2007 Biodiversity of benthic assemblages on the Arctic continental shelf: historical data form Canada. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 331:291-304.
Dauvin, J.C. and M. Joncourt, 1989 Energy values of marine benthic invertebrates from the western English Channel. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 69:589-595.
De Broyer, C. and B. Danis (eds.), 2007 SCAR-MarBIN: The Antarctic Marine Biodiversity Information Network. [05/13/2007].
Dieuzeide, R., 1950 La faune chalutable de la baie de Castiglione. Bull. Stn. Aquic. Pêch. Castiglione (n,s):9-86.
Drumm, D.T., K.P. Maslenikov, R. Van Syoc, J.W. Orr, R.R. Lauth, D.E. Stevenson and T.W. Pietsch, 2016 An annotated checklist of the marine macroinvertebrates of Alaska. NOAA Professional Paper NMFS 19, 289 p. doi:10.7755/PP.19
Elahi, R., 2012 Diversity and structure of subtidal rock walls in the Salish Sea: the roles of grazing, oceanography, and long-term change. Biology, Doctor of Philosophy, University of Washington, 151pp.
Engstrom, N.A., 1982 Brooding behavior and reproductive biology of a subtidal Puget Sound sea cucumber, Cucumaria lubrica (Clark 1901) (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). In Proceedings of the International Echinoderm Conference, Tampay Bay. Lawrence, J. M., ed., 447 - 450. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.
Feder, H.M. and S.C. Jewett, 1977 Trawl survey of the epifaunal invertebrates of Norton Sound, southeastern Chukchi Sea, and Kotzebue Sound. Final Report to NOAA. R.U. No. 502. 148 p.
Fell, H.B., 1948 The constitution and relations of the New Zealand echinoderm fauna. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77(5):208-212.
Fox, R.S. and E.E. Ruppert, 1985 Shallow-water marine benthic invertebrates of South Carolina: Species identificattion, community composition and symbiotic association. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, SC (USA).
Fromont, J., M. Salotti, O. Gomez, S. Slack-Smith, C. Whisson, L. Marsh, A. Sampey, T. O'Hara, A. Miskelly and K. Naughton, 2009 Identification of demosponges, echinoderms and molluscs from the Ningaloo Deepwater Surveys - 2006 to 2008 Expeditions. Final report to the Australian Institute of Marine Science, Perth, WA, 29p.
Garilao, N., 2014 Baltic Sea species list. Personal communication, 25 April 2014. Provided excel file.
Glagolev, S.M., L.A. Abramova and A.A. Vedenin, 2006 The list of invertebrate animal species of the Chupa Bay (Kandalaksha Gulf, White Sea). The materials of the White Sea Expedition of Moscow Southwest High School Vol. 6. http://herba, [Accessed 23/04/2007]
Gotshall, D.W., 2005 Guide to marine invertebrates: Alaska to Baja California, 2nd ed. (revised). Sea Challengers. 117 p.
Grebmeier, J.M., L.W. Cooper, H.M. Feder and B.I. Sirenko, 2006 Ecosystem dynamics of the Pacific-influenced Northern Bering and Chukchi Seas in the Amerasian Arctic. Progress in Oceanography 71:331-361.
Guille, A., 1982 A new genus and species of ophiacanthid brittlestar (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from the Kerguelen Islands, with new taxonomic, biogeographic and quantitative data on the echinoderm fauna. Australian Museum Memoir 16:67-87.
Gutt, J., 1991 On the distribution and ecology of holothurians in the Weddell Sea (Antarctica). Polar Biol. 11:145-155.
Gutt, J., P. Koubbi and M. Eléaume, 2007 Mega-epibenthic diversity of Terre Adélie (Antarctica) in relation to disturbance. Polar Biol. 30:1323-1329.
Hansson, H.G., 1999 European Echinodermata checklist. Species 2000 and Tjärnö Marine Biological Laboratory. []
Hansson, H.G., 2001 Echinodermata. p. 336-351. In Costello, M.J. et al. (eds) European Register of Marine Species: A Check-list of the Marine Species in Europe and a Bibliography of Guides to their Identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50.
Harvey-Clark, C., 1997 Eastern tidepool and reef: north-central Atlantic marinelife guide. Hancock House Publishers, 64pp.
Häussermann, V. and G. Försterra, 2009 Marine benthic fauna of Chilean Patagonia. Santiago, Nature in Focus. 1000 p.
Hendler, G. and D.L. Pawson, 2000 Echinoderms of the Rhomboidal Cays, Belize: Biodiversity, distribution, and ecology. Atoll Research Bulletin 479:275-299.
Hibberd, T. and K. Moore, 2009 Field identification guide to Heard Island and McDonald Islands benthic invertebrates: a guide for scientific observers aboard fishing vessels. Kingston, Tas. : Australian Antarctic Division and Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (Australia), 152 p.
Jangoux, M., C. de Ridder, C. Massin and P. Darsono, 1989 The holothuroids, echinoids and asteroids (Echinodermata) collected by the Snellius-II expedition. Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 23(2):161-170.
Jennings, S., J. Lancaster, A. Woolmer and J. Cotter, 1999 Distribution, diversity and abundance of epibenthic fauna in the North Sea. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 79:385-399.
Jia, X., Z. Li, C. Li, Y. Qiu and J. Gan, 2004 Studies on the ecosystem and commercial fisheries resources in commercial zone and the continental shelf in South China Sea. Science Publishing, Beijing, 647 p.
Kangas, M. and S. Morrison, 2013 Trawl impacts and biodiversity management in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 64:1135-1155.
Kangas, M.I., S. Morrison, P. Unsworth, E. Lai, I. Wright and A. Thomson, 2006 Development of biodiversity and habitat monitoring systems for key trawl fisheries in Western Australia. Final FRDC Report - Project 2002/038.
Keeling, J.K., T.R. Irvine, P. Alderslade, G. Clapin, J. Fromont, A.M. Hosie, J.M. Huisman, J.C. Phillips, K.M. Naughton, L.M. Marsh, S.M. Slack-Smith, D.P. Thomson and J.E. Watson, 2011 Marine benthic flora and fauna of Gourdon Bay and the Dampier Peninsula in the Kimberley region of north-western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 94:285-301.
Kerr, A.M. and J. Kim, 2001 Phylogeny of Holothuroidea (Echinodermata) inferred from morphology. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 133:63-81, with 5 figures.
Koukouras, A. and M.-S. Kitsos, 2010 Echinoderms. pp.288-296 In Coll, M., et al., 2010. The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats. PLoS ONE 5(8):36pp.
Lamb, A., D. Gibbs and C. Gibbs, 2011 Strait of Georgia biodiversity in relation to bull kelp abundance. Pacific Fisheries Resource Conservation Council, 111p.
Lambert, P., 1998 A taxonomic review of five northeastern Pacific sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea). p. 473-477. In Guille, D.B., J.P. Feral and M. Roux (eds.) Echinoderms Through Time. Proceedings of the Eighth International Echinoderm Conference, Dijon, France, 6-10 September 1993. A.A. Balkema Press, Rotterdam.
Lambert, P., 1997 Sea cucumbers of British Columbia, southeast Alaska and Puget Sound. UBC Press, Vancouver, Canada. 165 p.
Lane, D., 2008 Echinodermata. In p. 129-143, Davison, G.W.H.; Ng, P.K.L.; Ho, H.C., 2008. The Singapore Red Data Book: Threatened plants and animals of Singapore. Singapore: The Nature Society, 285pp.
Lane, D.J.W., L.M. Marsh, VandenSpiegel and F.W.E. Rowe, 2000 Echinoderm fauna of the South China Sea: an inventory and analysis of distribution patterns. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology (Suppl. 8):459-493.
Lauth, R.R., 2011 Results of the 2010 eastern and northern Bering Sea continental shelf bottom trawl survey of groundfish and invertebrate fauna. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-AFSC-227, 256p.
Lawrence, J.M. and A. Guille, 1982 Organic composition of tropical, polar and temperate water echinoderms. Compendium of Biochemistry and Physiology 72B:283-287.
Le Pape, O., L. Baulier, A. Cloarec, J. Martin, F. Le Loc'h and Y. Désaunay, 2007 Habitat suitability for juvenile common sole (Solea solea, L.) in the Bay of Biscay (France): a quantitative description using indicators based on epibenthic fauna. Journal of Sea Research 57:126-136.
Levin, V.S. and E.N. Gudimova, 2000 Taxonomic interrelations of holothurians Cucumaria frondosa and C. japonica (Dendrochirotida, Cucumariidae). SPC Beche-de mer Information Bulletin 13:22-29.
Ludwig, H., 1875 Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Holothurien mit Nachtrag. Arbeiten aus d. zool.-zoot. Inst. in Wurzburg 29(2):77-118.
Macdonald, T.A., B.J. Burd, V.I. Macdonald and A. van Roodselaar, 2010 Taxonomic and feeding guild classification for the marine benthic macroinvertebrates of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2874:62p., 2050
Marliave, J.B., C.J. Gibbs, D.M. Gibbs, A.O. Lamb and S.J.F. Young, 2011 Biodiversity stability of shallow marine benthos in Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada through climate regimes, overfishing and ocean acidification. pp. 49-74, In Grillo, O. (ed.), Biodiversity Loss in a Changing Planet, PhD.
Martinez, A.M., 1989 Holoturoides (Echinodermata, Holothuroidea) de la region Nor-Oriental de Venezuela y algunas dependencias federales. Boletin del Institut Oceanografico de Venezuela, Universidad Oriente 28 (1-2):1-2.
Massin, C., 1987 Holothuries nouvelles et peu connues récoltées en Indonésie au cours de la Snellius-II Expedition. [New and poorly known Holothurians collected in Indonesia during the Snellius II-expedition]. Bulletin van het Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen 57:97-121.
McClintock, J.B., 1986 On estimating energetic values of prey: implications in optimal diet models. Oecologia 70:161-162.
Miloslavich, P., J.M. Díaz, E. Klein, J.J. Alvarado, C. Díaz, J. Gobin, E. Escobar-Briones, Motta, J.J. Cruz, E. Weil, J. Cortés, A.C. Bastidas, R. Roberston, F. Zapata, A. Martín, J. Castillo, A. Kazandjian and M. Ortiz, 2010 Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns. PLoS ONE 5(8):e11916.
Mironov, A.N. and A.B. Dilman, 2010 Effect of the East Siberian Barrier on the echinoderm dispersal in the Arctic Ocean. Oceanology 50(3):342-355.
Mjobo, S., 2015 A re-appraisal of the holothuroid genera Pseudocnus Panning, 1949 and Pseudocnella Thandar, 1987 based on morphological and, for the latter, also molecular evidence (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Dendrochirotida: Cucumariidae). Msc thesis, Biology and Conservation School of Life Sciences, University of Kwazulu-Natal, 145p.
Murray, J., 1896 On the deep and shallow-water marine fauna of the Kerguelen region of the Great Southern Ocean. Challenger Expedition 343-500 p.
National Ocean Service., 2050 Coral cap species of Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary. Accessed online from on 9 December 2013.
Norrbin, F. and U. Bamstedt, 1984 Energy contents in benthic and planktonic invertebrates of Kosterfjorden, Sweden. A comparison of energetic strategies in marine organism groups. Ophelia 23:47-64.
O'Hara, T., 1998 Origin of Macquarie Island echinoderms. Polar Biol. 20:143-151.
O'Loughlin, P.M., 2009 BANZARE holothuroids (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). Zootaxa 2196:1-18.
O'Loughlin, P.M., 2002 Report on selected species of Banzare and Anare Holothuroidea, with reviews of Meseres Ludwig and Heterocucumis Panning (Echinodermata). Memoirs of Museum Victoria 59:297-325.
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Ohgaki, S., 2001 Distribution of intertidal macrobenthos around Hatakejima Island, 1993. Argonauta 5:32-47(2001).
Pancucci-Papadopoulou, M.A., 1996 Fauna Graeciae VI. The Echinodermata of Greece. Fauna Graeciae, Hellenic Zoological Society. Athens, Greece. 149 p.
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Rauschert, M. and W.E. Arntz, 2015 Antarctic macrobenthos: a field guide of the invertebrates living at the Antarctic seafloor. Arntz & Rauschert Selbstverlag, Wurster Nordseekueste, Germany, 143p.
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Sept, J.D., 2008 Common seashore creatures of the Pacific Northwest. Canada, Calypso Publishing, 95p.
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Thandar, A.S., 1998 A new genus and three new species of deep-sea holothuroids from the west coast of South Africa (Echinodermata). Journal of Zoology (London) 244:79-88.
Thandar, A.S., 2006 New species and new records of dendrochirotid and dactylochirotid holothuroids (Echinodermata : Holothuroidea) from off the east coast of South Africa. Zootaxa 1245:1-51.
Thandar, A.S. and M.N. Moodley, 2003 Two new genera and a new species in the holothurian family Cucumariidae (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). African Zoology 38(2):279-284.
Thandar, A.S. and V. Rajpal, 1999 Thyone herberti, a new dendrochirotid species from the east coast of South Africa (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). Journal of Zoology (London) 248:189-193.
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von Marenzeller, E., 1881 Neue Holothurien von Japan und China. Verh. Zool. Botan. Ges. Wien, Bd. XXXI:121-140, pls IV-V.
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