Biodiversity in Lebanon (LBN)
  FishBase Complete Literature Reference
Species Families Species Families
Marine 282 121 No 367 131 %
Freshwater 2 2 No
Total 309 140 No
Geography and Climate Lebanon is located in the Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and Syria. Area comparatively about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut. Total land boundary is 454 km, border countries are Israel 79 km and Syria 375 km. Climate in Mediterranean is mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers; Lebanon mountains experience heavy winter snows. Terrain consists of narrow coastal plain; Al Biqa' (Bekaa Valley) separates Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains. Elevation extreme has the lowest point in Mediterranean Sea 0 m and highest point in Jabal al Makmal 3,087 m. Natural resources are limestone, iron ore, salt, water-surplus state in a water-deficit region. Land use: arable land: 21%, permanent crops: 9%, permanent pastures: 1%, forests and woodland: 8%, other: 61% (1993 est.). Irrigated land: 860 sq km (1993 est.). Natural hazards are dust storms, sandstorms. Environment—current issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Beirut from vehicular traffic and the burning of industrial wastes; pollution of coastal waters from raw sewage and oil spills Geography—note: Nahr al Litani only major river in Near East not crossing an international boundary; rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect, and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, and ethnicity.

Ref.  Anonymous, 1999
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