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References used for species in the Family Pyuridae
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[ n = 230 ] 
Alcock, A., 1901 A descriptive catalogue of the Indian deep-sea Crustacea Decapoda Macrura and Anomala in the Indian museum. Being a revised account of the deep-sea species collected by the Royal Indian Marine Survey Ship Investigator. 286 p. + plates 1-3.
Allen, M.J., T. Mikel, D.. Cadien, J.E. Kalman, E.T. Jarvis, K.C. Schiff, D.W. Diehl, S.L. Moore, S. Walther, G. Deets, C. Cash, S. Watts, D.J. Pondella, V. Raco-Rands, C. Thomas, R. Gartman, L. Sabin, W. Power, A. Groce, J. Armstrong, 2007 Appendix F - Glossary and Nomenclature. [Accessed 31/05/2017].
Andrew, N. and M. Francis, 2003 The living reef. The ecology of New Zealand's rocky reefs. Craig Potton Publishing, New Zealand. 283pp.
Arnaud, P.M., 1974 Contribution à la bionomie marine benthique des régions antarctiques et subantarctiques. Téthys 6(3):467-653.
Astorga, M.P., R. Guiñez and J.C. Castilla, 2009 Genetic divergence in the Ascidian Pyura praeputialis (=Pyura stolonifera) (Heller, 1878) from mainland Australia and Tasmania. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 143(2):101-104.
Atkinson, E.G. and J.W. Wacasey, 1976 Caloric values of zoobenthos and phytobenthos from the Canadian Arctic. Department of the Environment, Fishieries and Marine Service, Technical Report 632:1-23.
Atlas of Living Australia, 2015 Culeolus elegans.;jsessionid=5BEC031562960F5C5BE8BBF388E5367F [Accessed 3/5/2015].
Atlas of Living Australia., 2015 Pyura stolonifera (Heller, 1878). [Accessed 4/29/2015].
Australian Biological Resources Study, 2000 Australian Faunal Directory. World Wide Web electronic publication.
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, 2000 Marine Invertebrates of the Hawaiian Islands - Summary statistics for major taxa.
Birkeland, C., 1974 Interactions between a sea pen and seven of its predators. Ecological Monographs 44:211-232.
Birkely, S.-R. and B. Gulliksen, 2003 Feeding ecology in five shrimp species (Decapoda: Caridea) from an Arctic Fjord (Isfjorden, Svalbard), with emphasis on Sclerocrangon boreas (Phipps, 1774). Crustaceana 76(6):699-715.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly and J. van Hertum (eds.), 2007 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Blanchard, A.L., C.L. Parris, A.L. Knowlton and N.R. Wade, 2013 Benthic ecology of the northeastern Chukchi Sea. Part II. Spatial variation of megafaunal community structure, 2009-2010. Cotinental Shelf Research 67:67-76.
Bocas del Toro: Species Database, 2015 Microcosmus exasperatus Heller, 1878. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. [Accessed 6/10/2015].
Boone, L., 1927 Crustacea from tropical east American seas. Scientific results of the first oceanographic expedition of the "Pawnee". Bulletin of the Bingham Oceanographic Collection 1(2):1-147 + plates 1-33.
Bowden, D.A., A. Clarke, L.S. Peck and D.K.A. Barnes, 2006 Antarctic sessile marine benthos: colonisation and growth on artificial substrata over three years. MEPS 316: 1-16. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 316:1-16.
Bradbury, M.G. and D.M. Cohen, 1958 An illustration and a new record of the North Pacific bathypelagic fish Macropinna microstoma. Stanford Ichthyol. Bull. 7(3): 57-59.
Bruce, A.J., 1966 Nephrops sinensis sp.nov., a new species of lobster from South China Sea. Crustaceana 10:155-156 + plates 10-12.
Cardigos, F., F. Tempera, S. Avila, J. Gonçalves, A. Colaço and R.S. Santos, 2006 Non-indigenous marine species of the Azores. Helgol Mar Res 60:160-169.
Castilla, J.C., A.G. Collins, C.P. Meyer, R. Guiñez and D.R. Lindberg, 2002 Recent introduction of the dominant tunicate, Pyura praeputialis (Urochordata, Pyuridae) to Antofagasta, Chile. Molecular Ecology 11:1579-1584.
Castilla, J.C., M. Uribe, N. Bahamonde, M. Clarke, R. Desqueyroux-Faúndez, I. Kong, H. Moyano, N. Rozbaczylo, B. Santelices, C. Valdovinos and P. Zavala, 2005 Down under the southeastern Pacific: marine non-indigenous species in Chile. Biological Invasions 7:213-232.
Castilla, J.C., R. Guiñez, J.L. Alvarado, C. Pacheco and M. Varas, 2000 Distribution, population structure, population biomass and morphological characteristics of the tunicate Pyura stolonifera in the Bay of Antofagasta, Chile. Marine Ecology 21(2):161-174.
Castro, P. and M.E. Huber, 2005 Marine biology. 452 p. ; col. ill. Boston, McGraw-Hill.
Cea, G., 1969 Estadios primarios de desarrollo y metamorfosis de Pyura chilensis Molina, 1782 (Tunicata, Ascidiacea, Pyuridae). Bol Soc Biol Concepción, Tomo XLII:317-331.
Cheung, P.-S.C., 1991 An intertidal survey of Cape d'Aguilar, Hong Kong with special reference to the ecology of high-zoned rock pools. Hong Kong: Pok Fu Lam, University of Hong Kong, MSc Thesis, 264 p.
Cheung, W.L., R. Watson and D. Pauly, 2013 Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch. Nature 497:365-368.
Chiriboga, A., D. Ruiz, N. Tirado-Sanchez and S. Banks, 2016 CDF Checklist of Galapagos animals with a notochord - FCD Lista de especies de Animales con un notochord Galápagos. In Bungartz, F.; Herrera, H.; Jaramillo, P.; Tirado, N.; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G.; Ruiz, D.; Guézou, A.; Ziemmeck, F. (eds) Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Species Checklist - Lista de Especies de Galápagos de la Fundación Charles Darwin. Charles Darwin Foundation / Fundación Charles Darwin, Puerto Ayora, Galapagos.
Christie, H., N.M. Jørgensen, K.M. Norderhaug and E. Waage-Nielsen, 2003 Species distribution and habitat exploitation of fauna associated with kelp (Laminaria hyperborea) along the Norwegian Coast. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK 83(4):687-699.
Clarke, A. and N.M. Johnston, 2003 Antarctic marine benthic diversity. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 41:47-114.
Cole, L. and G. Lambert, 2009 Tunicata (Urochordata) of the Gulf of Mexico. pp. 1209-1216 In Felder, D.L.; Camp, D.K. (eds.) Gulf of Mexico - Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.
Cole, L. and M. Vorontsova, 1998 Species of Pyuridae (Ascidiacea) from south Vietnam. Bull. Mar. Sci. 62(1):1-6.
Cole, L.L., 1989 Catalog of tunicate type specimens in the United States National Museum Collection. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 487:i-12.
Coles, S.L., R.C. DeFelice, L.G. Eldredge and J.T. Carlton, 1999 Historical and recent introductions of non-indigenous marine species into Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Mar. Biol. 135:147-158.
Collin, R., M.C. Díaz, J. Norenburg, R.M. Rocha, J.A. Sánchez, M. Schulze, A. Schwartz and A. Valdés, 2005 Photographic identification guide to some common marine invertebrates of Bocas Del Toro, Panama. Caribbean Journal of Science. 41(3):638-707.
Cusson, M., P. Archambault and A. Aitken, 2007 Biodiversity of benthic assemblages on the Arctic continental shelf: historical data form Canada. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 331:291-304.
da Rocha, R.M. and S.B. de Faria, 2005 Ascidians at Currais Islands, Paraña, Brazil: taxonomy and distribution. Biota Neotropica 5(2):1-20.
Davis, A.R., 1995 Overexploitation of Pyura chilensis (Ascidiacea) in southern Chile: the urgent need to establish marine reserves. Rev Chil Hist Nat 68:107-116.
de Faria, S.B., 2006 Padrão de distribuição de Ascidiacea (Tunicata) no Atlântico e regiões polares adjacentes: um enfoque através da análise parcimoniosa de endemicidade (PAE). Universidade Federal do Paraná MS Thesis.
de Kluijver, M.J. and S.S. Ingalsuo, 2006 Tunicata: Macrobenthos of the North Sea. Zoological Museum, University of Amsterdam.
del Mundo, C.M., 2000 Philippine decapod crustacea. An illustrated handbook on the commercially important decapod crustacea of the Philippines. Fisheries Resources Evaluation and Environmental Services Division, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. Quezon City, Philippines. 83 p.
Dettai, A., S.J. Adamowizc, L. Allcock, C.P. Arango, D.K. Barnes, I. Barratt, A. Chenuil, A. Couloux, C. Cruaud, B. David, F. Denis, G. Denys, A. Díaz, M. Eléaume, J.-P. Féral, A. Froger, C. Gallut, R. Grant, H.J. Griffiths and C. Held, 2011 DNA Barcoding and molecular systematics of the benthic and demersal organisms of the CEAMARC survey. Polar Science 117, 33 p.
Drumm, D.T., K.P. Maslenikov, R. Van Syoc, J.W. Orr, R.R. Lauth, D.E. Stevenson and T.W. Pietsch, 2016 An annotated checklist of the marine macroinvertebrates of Alaska. NOAA Professional Paper NMFS 19, 289 p. doi:10.7755/PP.19
Duarte, W.E., F. Jara and C.A. Moreno, 1980 Energetic content of several benthic invertebrates from the Chilean coast and annual fluctuation of Mytilus chilensis Hupe 1854. Boletim do Instituto Oceanográfico 29:157-162.
Duffy, C.A.J. and S.T. Ahyong, 2015 Annotated checklist of the marine flora and fauna of the Kermadec Islands Marine Reserve and northern Kermadec Ridge, New Zealand. Bulletin of the Auckland Museum 20:19-124.
Durkin, M.K., 1980 The Saleniinae in time and space. p. 3-14. In M. Jangoux (ed.) Echinoderms: Present and Past. Proceedings of the European Colloquim on Echinoderms, Brussels, 3-8 September 1979.
Elahi, R., 2012 Diversity and structure of subtidal rock walls in the Salish Sea: the roles of grazing, oceanography, and long-term change. Biology, Doctor of Philosophy, University of Washington, 151pp.
FAO-FIES, 2016 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 15/04/2016].
FAO-FIES, 2007 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 03/07/2008].
Feder, H.M. and S.C. Jewett, 1977 Trawl survey of the epifaunal invertebrates of Norton Sound, southeastern Chukchi Sea, and Kotzebue Sound. Final Report to NOAA. R.U. No. 502. 148 p.
Feder, H.M., S.C. Jewett and A. Blanchard, 2005 Southeastern Chukchi sea (Alaska) epibenthos. Polar Biol 28:402-421.
Garilao, N., 2014 Baltic Sea species list. Personal communication, 25 April 2014. Provided excel file.
GBIF, 2015 Pyura arenosa. GBIF Data Portal. [Accessed 6/10/2015].
George, J.D., 2012 Reef-associated macroinvertebrates of the SE Gulf. p. 253-308 In Riegl, B.M.; Purkis, S.J. (eds) 2012. Coral Reefs of the Gulf: adaptation to climatic extremes. Springer Science.
Glagolev, S.M., L.A. Abramova and A.A. Vedenin, 2006 The list of invertebrate animal species of the Chupa Bay (Kandalaksha Gulf, White Sea). The materials of the White Sea Expedition of Moscow Southwest High School Vol. 6. http://herba, [Accessed 23/04/2007]
Godwin, L.S., 2003 Hull fouling as a pathway of marine invasions to Hawaii: analysis of vectors and developing management strategies. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Marine Bioinvasions, La Jolla, California, March 16 to 19, 45.
Goodbody, I., 2000 Diversity and distribution of ascidians (tunicata) in the Pelican Cays, Belize. Atoll Reseach Bulletin No. 480, p. 303-333.
Goodbody, I., 2003 The ascidian fauna of Port Royal, Jamaica I. Harbor and mangrove dwelling species. Bull. Mar. Sci. 73(2):457-476.
Goodbody, I., 2004 Diversity and distribution of ascidians (Tunicata) at Twin Cays, Belize. Atoll Research Bulletin 524:1-20.
Goodboy, I., 2004 Diversity and distribution of ascidians (tunicata) at Twin Cays, Belize. Atoll Reseach Bulletin No. 524. p. 1-19.
Gosner, K.L., 1978 A Field Guide to the Atlantic Seashore: Invertebrates and Seaweeds of the Atlantic Coast from the Bay of Fundy to Cape Hatteras (The Peterson Field Guide Series: 24). Houghton Miffin Company: Boston.
Gotshall, D.W., 2005 Guide to marine invertebrates: Alaska to Baja California, 2nd ed. (revised). Sea Challengers. 117 p.
Grebmeier, J.M., L.W. Cooper, H.M. Feder and B.I. Sirenko, 2006 Ecosystem dynamics of the Pacific-influenced Northern Bering and Chukchi Seas in the Amerasian Arctic. Progress in Oceanography 71:331-361.
Hansson, H.G., 1989 NEAT (North East Atlantic Taxa): South Scandinavian marine Chordata check-list. [accessed 05/04/2007]
Harbo, R.M., 1999 Whelks to Whales: Coastal Marine Life of the Pacific Northwest. Harbour Publishing: Madeira Park.
Hartmeyer, R., 1922 Miscellanea Ascidiologica. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 10:299-323.
Harvey-Clark, C., 1997 Eastern tidepool and reef: north-central Atlantic marinelife guide. Hancock House Publishers, 64pp.
Hatcher, A., 1994 Nitrogen and phosphorus turnover in some benthic marine invertebrates: implications for the use of C:N ratios to assess food quality. Marine Biology 121:161-166.
Häussermann, V. and G. Försterra, 2009 Marine benthic fauna of Chilean Patagonia. Santiago, Nature in Focus. 1000 p.
Hayward, P.J. and J.S. Ryland (eds.), 1990 The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. 627 pp.
Herdman, W.A., 1882 Report on the Tunicata collected by H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76. Part I. In Report of the scientific results of the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76: a summary of the scientific results, Zoology 6:1-296.
Hernández-Zanuy, A.C. and J.L. Carballo, 2001 Distribution and abundance of ascidian assemblages in Caribbean reef zones of the Golfo de Batabanó (Cuba). Coral Reefs 20:159-162.
Hibberd, T. and K. Moore, 2009 Field identification guide to Heard Island and McDonald Islands benthic invertebrates: a guide for scientific observers aboard fishing vessels. Kingston, Tas. : Australian Antarctic Division and Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (Australia), 152 p.
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Hong, S.Y., K.Y. Park, C.W. Park, C.H. Han, H.L. Suh, S.G. Yun, C.B. Song, S.G. Jo, H.S. Lim, Y.S. Kang, D.J. Kim, C.W. Ma, M.H. Son, H.K. Cha, K.B. Kim, S.D. Choi, K.Y. Park, C.W. Oh, D.N. Kim, H.S. Shon, J.N. Kim et al., 2006 Marine invertebrates in Korean coasts. Republic of Korea, Academy Publishing Company, Inc. 479 p.
Jagerskiold, L.A., 1971 A Survey of the Marine Benthoic Macrofauna along the Swedish West Coast 1921-1938. Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum et Litterarum Gothoburgensis. Zoologica 6:1-146.
Kangas, M. and S. Morrison, 2013 Trawl impacts and biodiversity management in Shark Bay, Western Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 64:1135-1155.
Kangas, M.I., S. Morrison, P. Unsworth, E. Lai, I. Wright and A. Thomson, 2006 Development of biodiversity and habitat monitoring systems for key trawl fisheries in Western Australia. Final FRDC Report - Project 2002/038.
Karthikeyan, M.M., G. Ananthan and A.J. Ali, 2009 Food and feeding habits of Herdmania pallida (Heller)(Urochordata: Ascidiacea) from Palk Strait, Southeast of India. World 1(3):225-229.
Klumpp, D. W., 1984 Nutritional ecology of the ascidian Pyura stolonifera: Influence of body size, food quantity and quality on filter-feeding, respiration, assimilation efficiency and energy balance. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 19(3):269-284.
Korczynski, R.E., 1989 A new species of solitary ascidian (Ascidacea: Pyuridae) from Mason Bay, Northwest Territories, Canada. Journal of Natural History 23:219-224.
Kott, P., 1969 Antarctic Ascidiacea. Vol. 13, Antarctic Research Series. American Geophysical Union, Publication 1725, Washington DC. 239 pp.
Kott, P., 2005 Catalogue of Tunicata in Australian Waters. Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Australia Department of the Environment and Heritage.
Kott, P., 1972 The ascidians of South Australia I. Spencer Gulf, St. Vincent Gulf and Encounter Bay. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 96(1):1-52.
Kott, P., 2002 Culeolus herdmani Sluiter, 1904 (Ascidiacea, Tunicata) from the northwestern Australian continental slope with an overview of the genus. Records of the Western Australian Museum 21:63-70.
Kott, P., 2002 The genus herdmania Lahille, 1888 (tunicata, ascidiacea) in Australian waters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean society 134:359-374.
Kott, P., 2003 New syntheses and new species in the Australian ascidiacea. Journal of Natural History 37(13):1611-1653.
Kott, P. and I. Goodbody, 1982 The ascidians of Hong Kong. Proceedings of the International Marine Biological Workshop 1(1):503-554.
Lagger, C., V. Häussermann, G. Försterra and M. Tatián, 2009 Ascidians from the southern Chilean Comau Fjord (Chordata, Ascidiacea). Spixiana 32(2):173-185.
Lamb, A., D. Gibbs and C. Gibbs, 2011 Strait of Georgia biodiversity in relation to bull kelp abundance. Pacific Fisheries Resource Conservation Council, 111p.
Lambert, C.C. and G. Lambert, 2003 Persistence and differential distribution of nonindigenous ascidians in harbors of the Southern California Bight. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 259:145-161.
Lambert, C.C. and G. Lambert, 1998 Non-indigenous ascidians in southern California harbours and marinas. Mar. Biol. 130:675-688.
Lambert, G., 1993 Three new species of stolidobranch ascidians (Chordata: Ascidiacea) from the California continental shelf. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 48(4):109-118.
Lambert, G., 2019 Fouling ascidians (Chordata: Ascidiacea) of the Galápagos: Santa Cruz and Baltra Islands. Aquatic Invasions 14:132-149
Lambert, G. and K. Sanamyan, 2001 Distaplia alaskensis sp.nov. (Ascidiacea, Aplousobranchia) and other new ascidian records from south-central Alaska, with a redescription of Ascidia columbiana (Huntsman, 1912). Can. J. Zool. 79:1766-1781.
Lamerato, A., 2001 Limulus polyphemus. Animal Diversity Web (accessed 9-12-2005).
Lippert, H. and K. Iken, 2003 Palatability and nutritional quality of marine invertebrates in a sub-Arctic fjord. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 83:1215-1219.
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Manríquez, P.H. and J.C. Castilla, 2005 Self-fertilization as an alternative mode of reproduction in the solitary tunicate Pyura chilensis. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 305:113-125.
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Mastrototaro, F. and M. Dappiano, 2005 New record of the non-indigenous species Microcosmus squamiger (Ascidiacea: Stolidobranchia) in harbour of Salerno (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). [Accessed 03/11/06]
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Michael, E.L., 1913 Vertical distribution of the Chaetognatha of the San Diego region in relation to the question of isolation vs. coincidence. The American Naturalist 47(553):17-49.
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Millar, R.H., 1959 Undersokningar over Oresund. XXXIX. On a small collection of ascidians from the Oresund and southeastern Kattegatt. Acta Univ. Lund. N. S. 56(1):1-17.
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Millar, R.H., 1988 Ascidians collected during the International Indian Ocean Expedition. J. Nat. Hist. 22:823-848.
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Miller, D.J. and E.E. Ball, 2005 Animal evolution: the enigmatic phylum Placozoa revisited. Current Biology 15(1):26-28.
Monniot, C and F. Monniot, 1983 Ascidies Antarctiques et Subantarctiques: Morphologie et Biogéographie. Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris A(Zoologie)125:1-168, 27 figs., 7 pls.
Monniot, C., 1998 Abyssal ascidians collected from the proximity of hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean. Bull. Mar. Sci. 63(3):541-558.
Monniot, C., 1989 Ascidies de Nouvelle-Calédonie. VI : Pyuridae et Molgulidae. Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle. Section A, Zoologie, biologie et écologie animales 11(3):475-507.
Monniot, C., 1997 Tuniciers abyssaux de l'Atlantique oriental tropical récoltés par les campagnes EUMELI. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 38:19-27.
Monniot, C., 2002 Stolidobranch ascidians from the tropical western Indian Ocean. Zooligical Journal of the Linnean 135:65-120.
Monniot, C., 1992 Ascidies de Nouvelle-Calédonie XI. Phlébobranches et stolidobranches du plateau des Chesterfield. Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle. Section A, Zoologie, biologie et écologie animales 14(1):3-22.
Monniot, C., 1978 Ascidies Phlebobranches et Stolidobranches du sud de l'Ocean Indien. Ann. Inst. Oceanogr., Paris 54(2):171-224.
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Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1994 Ascidians collected in the Weddell Sea by the RV "Polarstern" (EPOS cruise leg 3). Bulletin of Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle Series 16, Section A(1):13-37.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1987 Abundance and distribution of tunicates on the northern continental slope of the Gulf of Mexico. Bull. Mar. Sci. 41(1):36-44.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1991 Tunicata: peuplements d'ascidies profondes en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Diversite des strategies adaptatives. Memoires du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle Serie A Zoologie 151:357-448.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1982 Biology of the Antarctic seas 10. some Antarctic deep-sea tunicates in the smithsonian collections. Antarctic Research Series 32(Paper 4):95-130.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1985 Tuniciers profonds de l'océan Indien: campagnes SAFARI du << Marion Dufrense>>. Bulletin of National d'Histoire Naturelle Series 7, Section A(2):279-308.
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