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References used for species in the Family Polyclinidae
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[ n = 170 ] 
Abbott, D.P. and W.B. Trason, 1968 Ritterella rubra and Distaplia smithi: two new colonial ascidians from the west coast of North America. Bulletin Southern California Academy of Sciences 67:143-154.
Al-Yamani, F.Y., V. Skryabin, N. Boltachova, N. Revkov, M. Makarov, V. Grinstov and E. Kolesnikova, 2012 Illustrated Atlas on the Zoobenthos of Kuwait. Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research.
Arnaud, P.M., 1974 Contribution à la bionomie marine benthique des régions antarctiques et subantarctiques. Téthys 6(3):467-653.
Atlas of Living Australia, 2015 Aplidium ritteri. [Accessed 1/26/2015].
Atlas of Living Australia, 2015 Polyclinum psammiferum. [Accessed 3/5/2015].
Atlas of Living Australia, 2015 Occurrence of Polyclinum pute.;jsessionid=A1A2AE7F6DBEBDCE2E289084089CF1D6 [Accessed 1/23/2015].
Australian Biological Resources Study, 2000 Australian Faunal Directory. World Wide Web electronic publication.
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, 2000 Marine Invertebrates of the Hawaiian Islands - Summary statistics for major taxa.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly and J. van Hertum (eds.), 2007 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Borradaile, L.A., 1910 Penaeidae, Stenopidae, and Reptantia from the western Indian Ocean. The Percy Sladen Trust expedition to the Indian Ocean in 1905, under the leadership of Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner. Transactions of the Linnean Society (London, Zoology) 13(2):257-264 + plate 16.
Bradbury, M.G. and D.M. Cohen, 1958 An illustration and a new record of the North Pacific bathypelagic fish Macropinna microstoma. Stanford Ichthyol. Bull. 7(3): 57-59.
Cardigos, F., F. Tempera, S. Avila, J. Gonçalves, A. Colaço and R.S. Santos, 2006 Non-indigenous marine species of the Azores. Helgol Mar Res 60:160-169.
Castro, P. and M.E. Huber, 2005 Marine biology. 452 p. ; col. ill. Boston, McGraw-Hill.
Chiriboga, A., D. Ruiz, N. Tirado-Sanchez and S. Banks, 2016 CDF Checklist of Galapagos animals with a notochord - FCD Lista de especies de Animales con un notochord Galápagos. In Bungartz, F.; Herrera, H.; Jaramillo, P.; Tirado, N.; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G.; Ruiz, D.; Guézou, A.; Ziemmeck, F. (eds) Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Species Checklist - Lista de Especies de Galápagos de la Fundación Charles Darwin. Charles Darwin Foundation / Fundación Charles Darwin, Puerto Ayora, Galapagos.
Cole, L. and G. Lambert, 2009 Tunicata (Urochordata) of the Gulf of Mexico. pp. 1209-1216 In Felder, D.L.; Camp, D.K. (eds.) Gulf of Mexico - Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.
Cole, L.L., 1989 Catalog of tunicate type specimens in the United States National Museum Collection. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 487:i-12.
Coleman, N., 2001 1001 Nudibranchs catalogue of Indo-Pacific sea slugs. Neville Coleman's Underwater Geographic Pty Ltd, 144p.
Coles, S.L., R.C. DeFelice, L.G. Eldredge and J.T. Carlton, 1999 Historical and recent introductions of non-indigenous marine species into Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Mar. Biol. 135:147-158.
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley, 1971 Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition).
Cusson, M., P. Archambault and A. Aitken, 2007 Biodiversity of benthic assemblages on the Arctic continental shelf: historical data form Canada. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 331:291-304.
da Rocha, R.M. and S.B. de Faria, 2005 Ascidians at Currais Islands, Paraña, Brazil: taxonomy and distribution. Biota Neotropica 5(2):1-20.
Daumezon, G., 1909 Contribution a l'etude des Synascidies du golfe de Marseille. Bul. Sci. France-Belgique Paris 42:269-432.
De Broyer, C. and B. Danis (eds.), 2007 SCAR-MarBIN: The Antarctic Marine Biodiversity Information Network. [05/13/2007].
de Faria, S.B., 2006 Padrão de distribuição de Ascidiacea (Tunicata) no Atlântico e regiões polares adjacentes: um enfoque através da análise parcimoniosa de endemicidade (PAE). Universidade Federal do Paraná MS Thesis.
de Kluijver, M.J. and S.S. Ingalsuo, 2006 Tunicata: Macrobenthos of the North Sea. Zoological Museum, University of Amsterdam.
del Mundo, C.M., 2000 Philippine decapod crustacea. An illustrated handbook on the commercially important decapod crustacea of the Philippines. Fisheries Resources Evaluation and Environmental Services Division, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources. Quezon City, Philippines. 83 p.
Drumm, D.T., K.P. Maslenikov, R. Van Syoc, J.W. Orr, R.R. Lauth, D.E. Stevenson and T.W. Pietsch, 2016 An annotated checklist of the marine macroinvertebrates of Alaska. NOAA Professional Paper NMFS 19, 289 p. doi:10.7755/PP.19
Elahi, R., 2012 Diversity and structure of subtidal rock walls in the Salish Sea: the roles of grazing, oceanography, and long-term change. Biology, Doctor of Philosophy, University of Washington, 151pp.
Faulkner, D.J., D.J. Newman and G.M. Cragg, 2004 Investigations of the marine flora and fauna of the islands of Palau. Nat. Prod. Rep. 21:50-76.
Fenner, B., 2006 Almost us!? Sea squirts, tunicates, ascidians, subphylum urochordata, phylum chordata pt 1. WetWebMedia Aquarium, Fish and Aquatic Information. Http://[accessed 20/01/06]
Gabriele, M., V. Putrone and R. Brunetti, 1995 Morphometrics and energetic value of Adriatic ascidians. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 38:169-174.
Garilao, N., 2014 Baltic Sea species list. Personal communication, 25 April 2014. Provided excel file.
George, J.D., 2012 Reef-associated macroinvertebrates of the SE Gulf. p. 253-308 In Riegl, B.M.; Purkis, S.J. (eds) 2012. Coral Reefs of the Gulf: adaptation to climatic extremes. Springer Science.
Goodbody, I., 2000 Diversity and distribution of ascidians (tunicata) in the Pelican Cays, Belize. Atoll Reseach Bulletin No. 480, p. 303-333.
Goodbody, I., 2003 The ascidian fauna of Port Royal, Jamaica I. Harbor and mangrove dwelling species. Bull. Mar. Sci. 73(2):457-476.
Goodbody, I., 2004 Diversity and distribution of ascidians (Tunicata) at Twin Cays, Belize. Atoll Research Bulletin 524:1-20.
Goodboy, I., 2004 Diversity and distribution of ascidians (tunicata) at Twin Cays, Belize. Atoll Reseach Bulletin No. 524. p. 1-19.
Gosner, K.L., 1978 A Field Guide to the Atlantic Seashore: Invertebrates and Seaweeds of the Atlantic Coast from the Bay of Fundy to Cape Hatteras (The Peterson Field Guide Series: 24). Houghton Miffin Company: Boston.
Gotshall, D.W., 2005 Guide to marine invertebrates: Alaska to Baja California, 2nd ed. (revised). Sea Challengers. 117 p.
Gutt, J., P. Koubbi and M. Eléaume, 2007 Mega-epibenthic diversity of Terre Adélie (Antarctica) in relation to disturbance. Polar Biol. 30:1323-1329.
Hansson, H.G., 1989 NEAT (North East Atlantic Taxa): South Scandinavian marine Chordata check-list. [accessed 05/04/2007]
Harbo, R.M., 1988 Guide to the Western Seashore: Introductory Marinelife Guide to the Pacific Coast. Hancock House Publishers Ltd.: Surrey.
Harms, J., 1993 Check list of species (algae, invertebrates and vertebrates) found in the vicinity of the island of Helgoland (North Sea, German Bight) - a review of recent records. Helgoländer Meeresunters 47:1-34.
Häussermann, V. and G. Försterra, 2009 Marine benthic fauna of Chilean Patagonia. Santiago, Nature in Focus. 1000 p.
Hayward, P.J. and J.S. Ryland (eds.), 1990 The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. 627 pp.
Hernández-Zanuy, A.C. and J.L. Carballo, 2001 Distribution and abundance of ascidian assemblages in Caribbean reef zones of the Golfo de Batabanó (Cuba). Coral Reefs 20:159-162.
Hibberd, T. and K. Moore, 2009 Field identification guide to Heard Island and McDonald Islands benthic invertebrates: a guide for scientific observers aboard fishing vessels. Kingston, Tas. : Australian Antarctic Division and Fisheries Research and Development Corporation (Australia), 152 p.
Hong, S.Y., K.Y. Park, C.W. Park, C.H. Han, H.L. Suh, S.G. Yun, C.B. Song, S.G. Jo, H.S. Lim, Y.S. Kang, D.J. Kim, C.W. Ma, M.H. Son, H.K. Cha, K.B. Kim, S.D. Choi, K.Y. Park, C.W. Oh, D.N. Kim, H.S. Shon, J.N. Kim et al., 2006 Marine invertebrates in Korean coasts. Republic of Korea, Academy Publishing Company, Inc. 479 p.
Hull, S., 1995 The underwater biology of Filey Brigg: preliminary report 1995. [accessed 02/12/07]
Jagerskiold, L.A., 1971 A Survey of the Marine Benthoic Macrofauna along the Swedish West Coast 1921-1938. Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum et Litterarum Gothoburgensis. Zoologica 6:1-146.
Kangas, M.I., S. Morrison, P. Unsworth, E. Lai, I. Wright and A. Thomson, 2006 Development of biodiversity and habitat monitoring systems for key trawl fisheries in Western Australia. Final FRDC Report - Project 2002/038.
Kennedy, M.K., L. Van Guelpen, G. Pohle and L. Bajona (eds.), 2010 Canadian Register of Marine Species (CaRMs). World Wide Web electronic publication., version 1.0/2010.
Kott, P., 1969 Antarctic Ascidiacea. Vol. 13, Antarctic Research Series. American Geophysical Union, Publication 1725, Washington DC. 239 pp.
Kott, P., 2005 Catalogue of Tunicata in Australian Waters. Queensland Museum, Brisbane, Australia Department of the Environment and Heritage.
Kott, P., 2003 New syntheses and new species in the Australian ascidiacea. Journal of Natural History 37(13):1611-1653.
Kott, P., 1992 The Australian Ascidiacea Pt 3, Aplousobranchia (2). Mem. Queensl. Mus. 32(2):377-620.
Kott, P., 1957 The ascidians of Australia. II. Aplousobranchia Lahille: Clavelinidae Forbes and Harvey and Polyclinidae. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwat. Res. 8:64-110.
Lamb, A., D. Gibbs and C. Gibbs, 2011 Strait of Georgia biodiversity in relation to bull kelp abundance. Pacific Fisheries Resource Conservation Council, 111p.
Lambert, C.C. and G. Lambert, 1998 Non-indigenous ascidians in southern California harbours and marinas. Mar. Biol. 130:675-688.
Lambert, G., 2003 New records of ascidians from the NE Pacific: a new species of trididemnum, range extension and redescription of Aplidiopsis pannosum (Ritter, 1899) including its larva, and several non-indigenous species. Zoosystema 25(4):665-679.
Lamerato, A., 2001 Limulus polyphemus. Animal Diversity Web (accessed 9-12-2005).
Leewis, R., 2002 Flora en fauna van de zee [Marine flora and fauna]. Veldgids, 16. KNNV Uitgeverij: Utrecht, The Netherlands. 320 pp.
Levine, N.D., 1981 New species of Lankestria (Apicomplexa, Eugregarinida) from ascidians on the Central California Coast. The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 28(3):363-370.
Lippert, H. and K. Iken, 2003 Palatability and nutritional quality of marine invertebrates in a sub-Arctic fjord. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 83:1215-1219.
Macintyre, I.G., I. Goodbody, K. Ruetzler, D.S. Littler and M.M. Littler, 2000 A general biological and geological survey of the rims of ponds in the major mangrove islands of the Pelican Cays, Belize. Atoll Research Bulletin 467:13-44.
Macpherson, E., 1990 Crustacea Decapoda: on a collection of Nephropidae from the Indian Ocean and Western Pacific. Résultats des campagnes Musorstom. Vol. 6. Mémoires du Muséum National d' Historie Naturelle (Paris, Zoologie) 145:289-329 + figures 1-17.
Maddison, D.R. and K.-S. Schulz (eds.), 2004 The Tree of Life Web Project.
Marchenkov, A. and G. Boxshall, 2003 Copepods of the genera Haplostomella and Haplostomides (Cyclopoda: Ascidicolidae) associated with ascidians from the White Sea and Russian far east coastal waters. Hydrobiologia 510:1-15., 2050
Marliave, J.B., C.J. Gibbs, D.M. Gibbs, A.O. Lamb and S.J.F. Young, 2011 Biodiversity stability of shallow marine benthos in Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada through climate regimes, overfishing and ocean acidification. pp. 49-74, In Grillo, O. (ed.), Biodiversity Loss in a Changing Planet, PhD.
McCoy, M.C. and D.J. Faulkner, 2001 Uoamines A and B, Piperidine Alkaloids from the Ascidian Aplidium uouo. J. Nat. Prod., 64(8):1087 -1089.
Meadows, D.W. and A. Kane, 2006 Hawaii's Aquatic Organisms. Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources and the Pacific Cooperatives Studies Unit [ accessed 09/07/08].
Meliane, I. and A.A.R. Esplà, 2001 Records of ascidians (chordata, tunicata) from Oman, South East of Arabian Peninsula. p. 37-41. In Claereboudt, M., S, Goddard.,H. Al-Oufi, and J. Mcllwain (eds.) Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Fisheries, Aquaculture and Environment in the NW Indian Ocean. Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.
Millar, R.H., 1982 The marine fauna of New Zealand: Ascidiacea. New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir 85:1-117.
Millar, R.H., 1962 Further descriptions of South African ascidians. Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 46(7):113-221.
Millar, R.H., 1956 Ascidians from Mozambique, East Africa. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 12(9[CXIX]):913-932.
Millar, R.H., 1962 Some ascidians from the Caribbean. Natuurwet. Stud. Suriname (26):61-77.
Millar, R.H., 1961 Ascidians from Mozambique. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 4(13):11-16.
Millar, R.H., 1975 Ascidians from the Indo-West Pacific region in the zoological museum, Copenhagen (Tunicata, Ascidiacea). Steenstrupia 3(20):205-336.
Millar, R.H., 1977 Ascidians (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) from the northern and northeastern Brazilian shelf. Journal nat. Hist. 11(2):169-223.
Millar, R.H., 1988 Ascidians collected during the International Indian Ocean Expedition. J. Nat. Hist. 22:823-848.
Millar, R.H., 1955 On a collection of ascidians from South Africa. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 125(1):169-221.
Millar, R.H., 1958 Some ascidians from Brazil. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1(13):497-514.
Millar, R.H., 1966 Port Philip Survey 1957-1963. Ascidiacea. Mem. Natn. Mus. Vict. (27):357-384.
Millar, R.H., 1959 Undersokningar over Oresund. XXXIX. On a small collection of ascidians from the Oresund and southeastern Kattegatt. Acta Univ. Lund. N. S. 56(1):1-17.
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Monniot, C and F. Monniot, 1983 Ascidies Antarctiques et Subantarctiques: Morphologie et Biogéographie. Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris A(Zoologie)125:1-168, 27 figs., 7 pls.
Monniot, C., 1978 Ascidies Phlebobranches et Stolidobranches du sud de l'Ocean Indien. Ann. Inst. Oceanogr., Paris 54(2):171-224.
Monniot, C., 1997 Tuniciers abyssaux de l'Atlantique oriental tropical récoltés par les campagnes EUMELI. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 38:19-27.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1991 Tunicata: peuplements d'ascidies profondes en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Diversite des strategies adaptatives. Memoires du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle Serie A Zoologie 151:357-448.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1975 Abyssal tunicates: an ecological paradox. Ann. Inst. Océanogr 51(1):99-129.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1983 Ascidies antarctiques et subantarctiques: morphologie et biogeographie. Memoires du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle Serie A Zoologie 125:1-168.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1973 Ascidies des iles Kerguelen récoltées par P.M. Arnaud. Tethys 5(4):715-734.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1994 Ascidians collected in the Weddell Sea by the RV "Polarstern" (EPOS cruise leg 3). Bulletin of Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle Series 16, Section A(1):13-37.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1992 Ascidies des seamounts lusitaniens (campagne Seamount I). Bulletin of Natural History A(3-4):591-603.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1970 Quelques ascidies de l'Adriatique. Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle Series 2(6):1189-1199.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1987 Les ascidies de Polynesie francaise. Memoires du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle Serie A Zoologie 136:1-156.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1997 Records of ascidians from Bahrain, Arabian Gulf with three new species. Journal of Natural History 31(11):1623-1643.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1994 Additions to the inventory of eastern tropical Atlantic ascidians; arrival of cosmopolitan species. Bull. Mar. Sci. 54(1):71-93.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1976 Ascidies de la Côte du Mozambique. [Ascidians from the Mozambique coast.]. Rev. Zool. Afr. (1974) 90(2):357-392.
Monniot, C. and F. Monniot, 1987 Abundance and distribution of tunicates on the northern continental slope of the Gulf of Mexico. Bull. Mar. Sci. 41(1):36-44.
Monniot, F., 1978 Révision des Polyclinidae (Ascidiacea) des 1re et 2e exéditions antarctiques françaises, décrites par C. Ph. Sluiter. Zoologie 351:3-18.
Monniot, F., 1974 Ascidies littorales et bathyales récoltées au cours de la campagne Biaçores: Aplousobranches. Bull Mus Natn Hist nat 3 sér 251(173):1287-1325.
Monniot, F., 1973 Ascidies Aplousobranches des iles Kerguelen récoltées. pp. 39-58 In Grua, P. 1973. Invertébrés de l'infralittoral Rocheux dans l'Archipel de Kerguelen. Comité National Français des Recherches Antarctiques 2(32):1-74.
Monniot, F., 1987 Ascidies de Nouvelle-Caledonie 3. Polyclinidae du lagon. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle Section A Zoologie Biologie et Ecologie Animals 9(3):499-535.
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Monniot, F. and C. Monniot, 2006 Ascidies (Polyclinidae, Pseudodistomidae et Polycitoridae) de l'ouest de l'océan Indien. Zoosystema 28(1):113-156.
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