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References used for species in the Family Haliotidae
( abalones )
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[ n = 223 ] 
Abbott, R.T., 1991 Seashells of South East Asia. Graham Bash, Singapore. 145 p.
Ahmed, F., S. Segawa, M. Yokota and S. Watanabe, 2008 Effect of light on oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion in Haliotis discus discus, H. gigantea, H. madaka and their hybrids. Aquaculture 279(1):160-165.
Ali, A.M., A.A. Basmidi, M.S. Aideed and A.Q.A. Saeed, 2009 First remarks on abalone biology (Haliotis pustulata) on the northern coast of Aden Gulf, Yemen. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 4(5):210-227.
Allen, G.R. and R. Steene, 1996 Indo-Pacific coral reef field guide. Tropical Reef Research, Singapore, 378 p.
Allen, G.R. and S.A. McKenna, 2001 A marine Rapid Assessment of the Togean and Banggai Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 20, Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Ambrose, R.F., 1984 Food preferences, prey availability, and the diet of Octopus bimaculatus Verrill. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 77:29-44.
Andrew, N. and M. Francis, 2003 The living reef. The ecology of New Zealand's rocky reefs. Craig Potton Publishing, New Zealand. 283pp.
Andrews, A.H., R.T. Leaf, L. Rogers-Bennett, M. Neuman, H. Hawk and G.M. Cailliet, 2013 Bomb radiocarbon dating of the endangered white abalone (Haliotis sorenseni): investigations of age, growth and lifespan. Marine and Freshwater Research 64:1029-1039.
Angell, A.R., I. Pirozzi, R. de Nys and N.A. Paul, 2012 Feeding preferences and the nutritional value of tropical algae for the abalone Haliotis asinina. PLoS ONE 7(6):1-10.
APHOTOMARINE, 2014 Haliotis laevigata. [Accessed 09/08/2015].
Arai, K. and S. I. Okumura, 2013 Aquaculture-oriented genetic researches in abalone: Current status and future perspective. African Journal of Biotechnology, 12(26).
Arai, K., H. Tsubaki, Y. Ishitani and Fujino K., 1982 Chromosomes of Haliotis discus hannai Ino and H. discus Reeve. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries. 48: 1689-1691.
Ault, G.S., 1985 Some quantitative aspects of reproduction and growth of the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson. J. World Maricul. Soc. 16:398-425.
Ault, J.S., L. Shanks and J. Parsons, 1985 Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific southwest): black, green and red abalones. Vicksburg, MS, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Coastal Ecology Group, Waterways Experiment Station., Biological Report - United States Fish and Wildlife Service, 82(11).
Australian Faunal Directory, 2015 Species Halitois rubra Leach, 1814.;jsessionid=67E5098E471CDE494ACF0513898F3E12 [Accessed 04/01/2015].
Australian Government Department of the Environment, 2015 Species Haliotis laevigata Donovan, 1808.;jsessionid=C98BDCBB2AB64005FB0CE4504A19FCC3 [Accessed 09/08/2015].
Backe, N., S. Davies, K. Conley, G. Kosmider, G. Rasmussen, H. Ibey and K. Ladell, 2011 Race Rocks (XwaYeN) proposed marine protected area ecosystem overview and assessment report. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2949:30p.
Barkai, R. and C.L. Griffiths, 1986 Diet of the South African abalone Haliotis midae. South African Journal of Marine Science 4(1):37-44.
Bartley, D.M. (comp./ed.), 2006 Introduced species in fisheries and aquaculture: information for responsible use and control (CD-ROM). Rome, FAO.
Batoy, C.B., 2050 Survey of the marine macrobenthic invertebrate fauna of coastal waters in selected places in Leyte and vicinity. Department of Plant Protection, Visayas State College of Agricultre, ViSCA, Baybay, Leyte 7127. pp 1-284.
Beechey, Des, 2012 The Seashells of New South Wales. Australian museum. [Accessed: 01/04/13]
Benkendorff, K., 2005 Intertidal molluscan and echinoderm diversity at Althorpe Island and Innes National Park, South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 129(2):145-157.
Berthou, P., J.M. Poutiers, P. Goulletquer and J.C. Dao, 2009 Shelled molluscs. In Fisheries and Aquaculture, from Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK, [].
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Boletzky, S.V. and R.T. Hanlon, 1983 A review of the laboratory maintenance, rearing and culture of cephalopod molluscs. 44:147-187. In C.F.E. Roper, C.C. Lu and F.G. Hochberg (eds.) Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Biology and Resource Potential of Cephalopods, Melbourne, Australia, 9-13 March, 1981.
Boolootian, R.A., A. Farmanfarmaian and A.C. Giese, 1962 On the reproductive cycle and breeding habits of two western species of Haliotis. Biol. Bull. 122(2):183-193.
Branch, G., C. Griffiths, M. Branch and L. Beckley, 2016 Two oceans: a guide to the marine life of southern Africa, fourth edition. Stuick Nature, The Estuaries No. 4, Oxbow Crescent, Century Avenue, Century City, 7441, 464 p.
Bravo, I., M.I. Reyero, E. Cacho and J.M. Franco, 1999 Paralytic shellfish poisoning in Haliotis tuberculata from the Galician coast: geographical distribution, toxicity by lengths and parts of the mollusc. Aquat. Toxicol. 46(2):79-85.
Butler, J., A. DeVogelaere, R. Gustafson, C. Mobley, M. Neuman, D. Richards, S. Rumsey, B. Taylor and G. VanBlaricom, 2009 Status review report for black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii Leach, 1814). California, US: National Marine Fisheries Service Printing Office.
Button, C.A., 2008 The influence of density-dependent aggregation characteristics on the population biology of benthic broadcast-spawning gastropods: pink abalone (Haliotis corrugata), red abalone (Haliotis rufescens), and wavy turban snails (Megastraea und Ph.D. thesis. University of California, San Diego.
Button, C.A. and L. Rogers-Bennett, 2011 Vital rates of pink abalone Haliotis corrugata estimated from mark-recapture data to inform recovery. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 431:151-161.
Campbell, A., R.E. Withler and K.J. Supernault, 2010 Occurrence of the red abalone Haliotis rufescens in British Columbia, Canada. American Malacological Bulletin 28(2):185-188.
Capinpin, E.C., V.C. Encena and N.C. Bayona, 1998 Studies on the reproductive biology of the Donkey's ear abalone, Haliotis asinina Linne. Aquaculture 166(1-2):141-150.
Carpenter, K.E. and N. De Angelis (eds.), 2016 The living marine resources of the Eastern Central Atlantic. Vol. 2: Bivalves, gastropods, hagfishes, sharks, batoid fishes, and chimaeras. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes, Rome, FAO. pp. 665-1509.
Catton, C.A. and L. Rogers-Bennett, 2013 Assessing the recovery of pink abalone (Haliotis corrugata) by incorporating aggregation into a matrix model. Journal of Shellfish Research 32(1):181-187.
Cheung, W.L., R. Watson and D. Pauly, 2013 Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch. Nature 497:365-368.
Chou, L.M. and K.S. Tan, 2008 Corals, worms, and molluscs: Cnidaria, Playhelminthes, Nemertea, Annelida, Brachiopoda, Mollusca. In pp. 39-61, Davison, G.W.H.; Ng, P.K.L.; Ho, H.C., 2008. The Singapore Red Data Book: Threatened plants and animals of Singapore. Singapore: The Nature Society, 285pp.
CITES, 2009 Appendices I, II and III valid from 22 May 2009. UNEP.
CITES, 2010 Appendices I, II and III valid from 23 June 2010. UNEP.
CITES, 2013 Appendices I, II and III valid from 12 June 2013. UNEP.
Clark, R., J. Christensen, C. Caldow, J. Allen, M. Murray and S. MacWilliams, 2005 A biogeographic assessment of the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary: a review of boundary expansion concepts for NOAA’s National Marine Sanctuary Program. NOAA.
Clavier, J. and P. Chardy, 1989 Investigation into the ecology of the ormer (Haliotis tuberculata L.), factors influencing spatial distribution. Aquat. Living Resour. 2:191-197.
CMFRI, 2015 Annual report 2014-15. Central Marine Fisheries Institute, Cochin. 353 p.
Colin, P.L. and C. Arneson, 1995 Tropical Pacific invertebrates: A field guide to the marine invertebrates occurring on tropical Pacific coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves. The Coral Reef Research Foundation. Coral Reef Press. 304 pp.
Cummins, P. and R. Haigh, 2010 Ecosystem status and trends report for North coast and Hecate Strait ecozone. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document 2010/045:67p.
De Smit, M. and K. Bába, 2002 New data to the marine malacofauna from Euboea Island (Greece). Malacological Newsletter 20:83-91.
Demir, M., 2003 Shells of mollusca collected from the seas of Turkey. Turkey Journal of Zoology 27:101-140.
Du, S. and K. Mai, 2005 Effects of starvation on energy reserves in young juveniles of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Journal of Shellfish Research 23:1037-1039.
FAO, 2007 Seafood in Europe. FAO Seafood in Europe CD's 4.
FAO Corporate Document Repository, 2016 Part 1:biology and culture of abalone. Chapter 1: species and their geographical distribution. [Accessed 11/15/2016].
FAO-FIES, 2007 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 03/07/2008].
FAO-FIES, 2015 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 13/04/2015].
Finet, Y., N. Tirado-Sanchez, A. Chiriboga, D. Ruiz and S. Banks, 2016 CDF Checklist of Galapagos marine mollusks - FCD Lista de especies de Moluscos Marinos Galápagos. In Bungartz, F.; Herrera, H.; Jaramillo, P.; Tirado, N.; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G.; Ruiz, D.; Guézou, A.; Ziemmeck, F. (eds) Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Species Checklist - Lista de Especies de Galápagos de la Fundación Charles Darwin. Charles Darwin Foundation / Fundación Charles Darwin, Puerto Ayora, Galapagos.
Finlay, H.J., 1928 The recent Mollusca of the Chatham Islands. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 59:232-286.
Fischer, W., G. Bianchi and W.B. Scott (eds.), 1981 Gastropods. 6: pag.var. In FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Central Atlantic (fishing areas 34, 47; in part). Canada Funds-in-Trust. Ottawa, Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, by arrangement with the Food and AgriculturesOrganization of the United Nations, 1-7: pag.var.
Fletcher, W.J. and K. Santoro, 2012 Status reports of the fisheries and aquatic resources of Western Australia 2011/12. The State of Fisheres. Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, 376p.
Forster, G.R., 1967 The growth of Haliotis tuberculata: results of tagging experiments in Guernsey 1963-65. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 47:287-300.
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Fotedar, R. and B. Philips, 2011 Recent Advances and New Species in Aquaculture. John Wiley and SOns, Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO198SQ, UK.
FROM Nord, 2016 Liste Espèces - Code FAO. [Accessed 09/14/2016].
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GBIF, 2015 Haliotis corrugata. [Accessed 09/03/2015].
GBIF, 2015 Haliotis iris. [Accessed 09/03/2015].
GBIF, 2015 Haliotis jacnensis. [Accessed 06/18/2015].
Geiger, D.L., 1998 Recent genera and species of the family Haliotidae Rafinesque, 1815 (Gastropoda: Vetigastropoda). The Nautilus 111(3):85-116.
Gibson, R., B. Hextall and A. Rogers, 2001 Photographic Guide to the Sea and Shore Life of Britain and Northwest Europe. Oxford University Press Inc., New York.
Giorgi, A.E. and J.D. DeMartini, 1977 A study of the reproductive biology of the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson, near Mendocino, California. Calif. Fish Game 63(2):80-94.
Gonzales, J.G. and Q.M. Ortiz, 1986 Estudios sobre madurez, indice gonadal y fecundidad en abulon negro, Haliotis cracherodii (Mollusca: Gasteropoda) a partir de muestras colectadas en la Isla de Cedros, Baja California, en Junio 1982. Instituto Nacional de Pesca. CRIP Ensenada. Doc. Tec. Inf. 1:54-72.
Goto, A., 1996 Some aspects of fishing among the Langalanga of Malaita Province, Solomon Islands. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin 7: 12-19.
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Gruenthal, K.M., L.K. Acheson and R.S. Burton, 2007 Genetic structure of natural populations of California red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) using multiple genetic markers. Marine Biology 152:1237-1248.
Guzmán del Próo, S.A. and V. Marín, 1976 Resultados preliminares sobre crecimiento de abulón amarillo y azul (Haliotis corrugata y H. fulgens) en Punta Abreojos, Baja California Sur. Instituto Nacional de Pesca, Ser. Científica 17:1-11.
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Hamm, D.E. and R.S. Burton, 2000 Population genetics of black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, along the central California coast. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 254:235-247.
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Helidoniotis, F., M. Haddon, G. Tuck and D. Tarbath, 2011 The relative suitability of the von Bertalanffy, Gompertz and inverse logistic models for describing growth in blacklip abalone populations (Haliotis rubra) in Tasmania, Australia. Fisheries Research 112(1-2):13-21.
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Heros, V., P. Lozouet, P. Maestrati, R. von Cosel, D. Brabant and P. Bouchet, 2007 Mollusca of New Caledonia. pp. 199-254. In Payri, C.E.; Richer de Forges, B. (eds). Compendium of marine species in New Caledonia, Doc. Sci. Tech. II7, seconde edition, IRD, Noumea.
Higo, S., P. Callomon and Y. Goto, 1999 Catalogue and bibliography of the marine shell-bearing Mollusca of Japan. Osaka: Elle scientific publications. 749 p.
Hobday, A.J. and M.J. Tegner, 2000 Status review of white abalone (Haliotis sorenseni) throughout its range in California and Mexico. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWR-035.
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Hooker, S.H. and R.G. Creese, 1995 Reproduction of paua, Haliotis iris Gmelin 1791 (Mollusca: Gastropoda), in north-eastern New Zealand. Marine and Freshwater Research 46(3):617-622.
Huchette, S.M.H., J.P. Soulard and R.W. Day, 2004 Maternal variability in the blacklip abalone, Haliotis rubra leach (Mollusca: Gastropoda): effect of egg size on fertilisation success. Aquaculture 231(1-4):181-195.
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Johnston, D., N. Moltschaniwskyj and J. Wells, 2005 Development of the radula and digestive system of juvenile blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra): potential factors responsible for variable weaning success on artificial diets. Aquaculture 250(1):341-355.
Kawamura, T. and H. Takami, 1995 Analysis of feeding and growth rate of newly metamorphosed abalone Haliotis discus hannai fed on four species of benthic diatom. Fisheries Science 61(2):357-358.
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Leighton, D.L., 1974 The influence of temperature on larval and juvenile growth in three species of southern California abalones. Fish. Bull. 72(4):1137-1145.
Leighton, D.L., 1972 Laboratory observations on the early growth of the abalone, Haliotis sorenseni, and the effect of temperature on larval development and settling success. Fish. Bull. 70(2):373-380.
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