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References used for species in the Family Littorinidae
( periwinkles )
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[ n = 237 ] 
Abbott, R.T., 1991 Seashells of South East Asia. Graham Bash, Singapore. 145 p.
Adami, M.L. and S. Gordillo, 1999 Structure and dynamics of the biota associated with Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta) from the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego. Sci. Mar. 63(Suppl 1):183-191.
Al-Yamani, F.Y., V. Skryabin, N. Boltachova, N. Revkov, M. Makarov, V. Grinstov and E. Kolesnikova, 2012 Illustrated Atlas on the Zoobenthos of Kuwait. Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research.
Allen, G.R. and S.A. McKenna, 2001 A marine Rapid Assessment of the Togean and Banggai Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 20, Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Andrade, S.C.S. and V.N. Solferini, 2006 The influence of size on the radula of Littoraria angulifera (Gastropodat: Littorinidae). Malacologia 49(1): 1-5.
ANS, Academy of Natural Sciences, 2007 Academy of Natural Sciences Malacology Database. Accessed through GBIF data portal, 13/09/2007.
Arnaud, P.M., 1974 Contribution à la bionomie marine benthique des régions antarctiques et subantarctiques. Téthys 6(3):467-653.
Asgari, M., F.A. Yekta and S. Izadi, 2012 Dominant intertidal crustacean and gastropod species in Qeshm Island, Iran, northern Persian Gulf. Marine Biodiversity Records 5:1-8.
Atlas of Living Australia, 2020 Littoraria undulata. [Accessed 23/07/2020].
Backeljau, T., M. De Meyer, L. Janssens and R. Proesmans, 1984 Prosobranch and shelled opisthobranch molluscs from Store Ekkeroya, Varangerfjorden (northern Norway). Fauna norv. Ser. A5:1-5.
Balazy, P., P. Kuklinski, M. Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, D. Barnes, M. Kedra, J. Legezynska and J.M. Weslawski, 2015 Hermit crabs (Pagurus spp.) at their northernmost range: distribution, abundance and shell use in the European Arctic. Polar Research 34:1-17.
Bandel, K. and F. Riedel, 1998 Ecological zonation of gastropods in the Matutinao River (Cebu, Philippines), with focus on their life cycles. Annls Limnol. 34(2):171-191.
Barroso, C.M., C. Gonçalves and M.H. Moreira, 2007 Growth, reproductive cycle and penis shedding of Littorina littorea in the Ria de Aveiro (north-west Portugal). J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 87:547-550.
Bartley, D.M. (comp./ed.), 2006 Introduced species in fisheries and aquaculture: information for responsible use and control (CD-ROM). Rome, FAO.
Batomalaque, G.A., B.G.P. Arce, Ma.B.M. Hernandez and I.K.C. Fontanilla, 2010 Survey and spatial distribution of shoreline malacofauna in Grande Island, Subic Bay. Philippine Journal of Science 139(2):149-159.
Batoy, C.B., 2050 Survey of the marine macrobenthic invertebrate fauna of coastal waters in selected places in Leyte and vicinity. Department of Plant Protection, Visayas State College of Agricultre, ViSCA, Baybay, Leyte 7127. pp 1-284.
Bauer, B., P. Fioroni, I., Liebe, S. Ide, J. Oehlmann, E. Stroben and B. Watermann, 1995 BT effects on the female genital system of Littorina littorea: a possible indicator of tributyltin pollution. Hydrobiologia 309(1-3):15-27.
Begin, C., L.E. Johnson and J.H. Himmelman, 2004 Macroalgal canopies: distribution and diversity of associated invertebrates and effects on the recruitment and growth of mussels. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 271:121-132.
Behrens Yamada, S., 1982 Growth and longevity of the mud snail Batillaria attramentaria. Marine Biology 67(2):187-192.
Benkendorff, K., 2005 Intertidal molluscan and echinoderm diversity at Althorpe Island and Innes National Park, South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 129(2):145-157.
Berthou, P., J.M. Poutiers, P. Goulletquer and J.C. Dao, 2009 Shelled molluscs. In Fisheries and Aquaculture, from Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK, [].
Birkeland, C. and H. Manner, 1989 Resource survey of Ngerukewid Islands Wildlife Preserve, Republic of Palau. A report to the government of Palau, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, World Wildlife Fund, and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, 202p.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Bishogai Data Base, 2001 Littorina squalida Broderip & Sowerby, 1892. [Accessed 09/10/2019].
Boominathan, M., G. Ravikumar, M.D.S. Chandran and T.V. Ramachandra, 2012 Mangrove associated molluscs of India. [Accessed 3/9/2015].
Boyko, C.B., 2003 The endemic marine invertebrates of Easter Island: how many species and for how long? In p. 155-175 Loret, J.; Tanacredi, J.T. (eds). 2003. Easter Island Scientific Exploration into the World's Environmental Problems in Microcosm. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. 240p.
Branch, G.M., C.L. Griffiths, M.L. Branch and L. Beckley, 2005 Two oceans: a guide to marine life in southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, 360 p.
Brey, T. and A. Clarke, 1993 Population dynamics of marine benthic invertebrates in Antarctic and subantarctic environments: are there unique adaptations? Antarc. Sci. 5(3):253-266.
Bright, T.J., 2010 A list of species from Glover's Reef Atoll, Belize. Wildlife Conservation Society. [Accessed 22/11/2010].
Brook, F.J., 1998 The coastal molluscan fauna of the northern Kermadec Islands, Southwest Pacific Ocean. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 28(2):185-233.
Brunt, M.A. and J.E. Davies, 2012 The Cayman Islands: natural history and biogeography. Springer Science and Business Media, 604 pp.
Burghardt, I., R. Carvalho, D. Eheberg, G. Gerung, F. Kaligis, G. Mamangkey, M. Schrödl, E. Schwabe, V. Vonnemann and H. Wägele, 2006 Molluscan diversity of Bunaken National Park, Sulawesi. J. Zool. Soc. Wallacea 2:29-43.
Carlton, J.T. and A.N. Cohen, 1998 Periwinkle's progress: the Atlantic snail Littorina saxatilis (Mollusca: Gastropoda) establishes a colony on a Pacific shore. The Veliger 41(4): 333-338.
Carpenter, K.E. and N. De Angelis (eds.), 2016 The living marine resources of the Eastern Central Atlantic. Vol. 2: Bivalves, gastropods, hagfishes, sharks, batoid fishes, and chimaeras. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes, Rome, FAO. pp. 665-1509.
Cartwright, S.R., 2010 Facilitation of intertidal species against environmental stress by barnacles in tropical Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Pok Fu Lam, University of Hong Kong, PhD Thesis, 220 p.
Chakravarty, M.S., P.R.C. Ganesh, D. Amaranth, B.S. Sudha and I. Ramulu, 2015 Malacofauna of Tekkali Creek, Srikakulam District, Andhra Pradesh, India: check list. Advances in Applied Science Research 6(6):1-6.
Chambers, M.R. and H. Milne, 1979 Seasonal variation in the condition of some intertidal invertebrates of the Ythan Estuary, Scotland. Estuarine and Coastal Marine Science 8:411-419.
Chapman, M.G. and A.J. Underwood, 1994 Dispersal of the intertidal snail, Nodilittorina pyramidalis, in response to the topographic complexity of the substratum. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 179:145-169.
Chavanich, S. and L.G. Harris, 2002 The influence of macroalgae on seasonal abundance and feeding preference of a subtidal snail, Lacuna vincta (Montagu) (Littorinidae) in the Gulf of Maine. J. Moll. Stud. 68:73-78.
Chenelot, H. and B. Konar, 2007 Lacuna vincta (Mollusca, Neotaenioglossa) herbivory on juvenile and adult Nereocystis luetkeana (Heterokontophyta, Laminariales). Hydrobiologia 583(1):107-118.
Cheung, P.-S.C., 1991 An intertidal survey of Cape d'Aguilar, Hong Kong with special reference to the ecology of high-zoned rock pools. Hong Kong: Pok Fu Lam, University of Hong Kong, MSc Thesis, 264 p.
Cheung, W.L., R. Watson and D. Pauly, 2013 Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch. Nature 497:365-368.
Christensen, J.T., 1998 Diet in Littoraria. In Aspects of Littorinid Biology (pp. 235-236). Springer Netherlands.
Coloma, C., H.I. Moyano, V.H. Ruiz and M. Marchant, 2004 Moluscos litorales de Isla de Pascua, Chile, recolectados por la expedicion CIMAR 5 - Islas Oceanicas I. Ciencia y Tecnologia del Mar 27(1):79-94.
Costa, G., S. Soares, F. Carvalho and J. Bela, 2016 Digenean parasites of the marine gastropods Littorina littorea and Gibbula umbilicalis in the Northern Portuguese Atlantic coast, with a review of digeneans infecting the two gastropod genera. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 4(5):345-352.
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley, 1971 Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition).
Dahl, L., 2002 Temporal, spatial and substrate dependent variations of Danish hard-bottom macrofauna. Helgol Mar Res 56:159-168.
Dall, W.H., 1886 Contributions to the natural history of the Commander Islands. Proceedings of the United States Museum No. 6:209-218.
David, A., 2013 Biodiversity and distribution of marine gastropods (Mollusca) during pre- and post-monsoon seasonsalong the Goa coastline, India. J. Mac. Biol. Ass. India 55(1):17-24.
De Wolf, H. and R. Rashid, 2008 Heavy metal accumulation in Littoraria scabra along polluted and pristine mangrove areas of Tanzania. Environmental Pollution 152:636-643.
Dekker, H. and Z. Orlin, 2000 Checklist of Red Sea Mollusca. Spirula Supplement 47:1-46.
Demir, M., 2003 Shells of mollusca collected from the seas of Turkey. Turkey Journal of Zoology 27:101-140.
Dey, M., Y.A. Jamadar and A. Mitra, 2005 Distribution of intertidal malacofauna at Sagar Island. Rec. zool. Surv. India 105:25-35.
Dubois, A. and K. Iken, 2012 Seasonal variation in kelp phlorotannins in relation to grazer abundance and environmental variables in the Alaskan sublitorral zone. Algae 27(1):9-19.
Duffy, C.A.J. and S.T. Ahyong, 2015 Annotated checklist of the marine flora and fauna of the Kermadec Islands Marine Reserve and northern Kermadec Ridge, New Zealand. Bulletin of the Auckland Museum 20:19-124.
Elner, R.W. and A.C. Campbell, 1987 Natural diets of lobster Homarus americanus from barren ground and macroalgal habitats off southwestern Nova Scotia, Canada. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 37:131-140.
FAO, 2007 Seafood in Europe. FAO Seafood in Europe CD's 4.
FAO-FIES, 2007 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 03/07/2008].
Farsi, P., J. Seyfabadi, F. Owfi and M.S. Aramli, 2015 Effect of environmental conditions on spatial distribution of macrobenthic community in Bushehr coasts of the Persian Gulf. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 15:869-878.
Ferriter, A., B. Doren, R. Winston, D. Thayer, B. Miller, B. Thomas, M. Barrett, T. Pernas, S. Hardin, J. Lane, M. Kobza, D. Schmitz, M. Bodle, L. Toth, Pratt, P. Rodgers, S. Snow and C. Goodyear, 2008 Chapter 9: The Status of Nonindigenous Species in the South Florida Environment. 2008 South Florida Environmental Report.
Finet, Y., N. Tirado-Sanchez, A. Chiriboga, D. Ruiz and S. Banks, 2016 CDF Checklist of Galapagos marine mollusks - FCD Lista de especies de Moluscos Marinos Galápagos. In Bungartz, F.; Herrera, H.; Jaramillo, P.; Tirado, N.; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G.; Ruiz, D.; Guézou, A.; Ziemmeck, F. (eds) Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Species Checklist - Lista de Especies de Galápagos de la Fundación Charles Darwin. Charles Darwin Foundation / Fundación Charles Darwin, Puerto Ayora, Galapagos.
Florida Museum of Natural History, 2014 Echinolittorina cinerea (Pease, 1869). Dataset: Invertebrate Zoology, Accessed via on 2015-07-16.
Florida Museum of Natural History, 2014 Littoraria undulata (Gray, 1839). Dataset: Invertebrate Zoology, Accessed via on 2015-07-16.
Florida Museum of Natural History, 2014 Peasiella roepstorffiana (Nevill, 1885). Dataset: Invertebrate Zoology, Accessed via on 2015-07-16.
Fox, R.S. and E.E. Ruppert, 1985 Shallow-water marine benthic invertebrates of South Carolina: Species identificattion, community composition and symbiotic association. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, SC (USA).
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Gallagher, S.B. and G.K. Reid, 1993 Population dynamics and zonation in the periwinkle snail, Littorina angulifera, of the Tampa Bay, Florida, region. Nautilus 94: 162-178.
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Garilao, N., 2014 Baltic Sea species list. Personal communication, 25 April 2014. Provided excel file.
Gaydos, J.K. and N.A. Brown, 2009 Species of concern within the Salish Sea marine ecosystem: changesfrom 2002 to 2008. In Proceedings of the 2009 Puget Sound Georgia Basin Ecosystem Conference e 8 to 11 February 2009. Seattle, WA: Environment Canada and the Puget Sound Partnership. 10 p.
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Ghasemi, S., M. Zakaria and N.M. Hoveizeh, 2011 Abundance of molluscs (Gastropods) at mangrove forests of Iran. Journal of American Science 7(1):660-669.
Gibson, R., B. Hextall and A. Rogers, 2001 Photographic Guide to the Sea and Shore Life of Britain and Northwest Europe. Oxford University Press Inc., New York.
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Goodwin, B.J., 1978 The growth and breeding cycle of Littorina obtusata (Gastropoda: Prosobranchiata) from Cardigan Bay. J. Mollus. Stud. 44(2):231-242.
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