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References used for species in the Family Muricidae
( purpuras, murex and rock shells )
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[ n = 574 ] 
Abaza, V., C. Dumitrache and E. Dumitrescu, 2010 Structure and distribution of the main molluscs from the Romanian marine areas designated for their growth and exploitation. Recherches Marines-Cercetări Marine 39: 137-152.
Abbott, R.T., 1991 Seashells of South East Asia. Graham Bash, Singapore. 145 p.
Adami, M.L. and S. Gordillo, 1999 Structure and dynamics of the biota associated with Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta) from the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego. Sci. Mar. 63(Suppl 1):183-191.
Al-Khayat, J.A. and M.A. Al-Ansi, 2008 Ecological features of oyster beds distribution in Qatari waters, Arabian Gulf. Asian Journal of Scientific Research 1(6):544-561.
Al-Yamani, F.Y., V. Skryabin, N. Boltachova, N. Revkov, M. Makarov, V. Grinstov and E. Kolesnikova, 2012 Illustrated Atlas on the Zoobenthos of Kuwait. Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research.
Allen, G.R. and S.A. McKenna, 2001 A marine Rapid Assessment of the Togean and Banggai Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 20, Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Allen, M.J., T. Mikel, D.. Cadien, J.E. Kalman, E.T. Jarvis, K.C. Schiff, D.W. Diehl, S.L. Moore, S. Walther, G. Deets, C. Cash, S. Watts, D.J. Pondella, V. Raco-Rands, C. Thomas, R. Gartman, L. Sabin, W. Power, A. Groce, J. Armstrong, 2007 Appendix F - Glossary and Nomenclature. [Accessed 31/05/2017].
Amgueddfa Cymru - National Museum of Wales, 2013 Murex thomasi. Mollusca Types Catalogue, Department of Biodiversity and Systematic Biology [Accessed 10/03/2015].
Amio, M., 1963 A comparative embryology of marine gastropods, with ecological emphasis. J. Shimonoseki College Fisheries 12:229-253.
Anam, R. and E. Mostarda, 2012 Field identification guide to the living marine resources of Kenya. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes, Rome: FAO, 357 p.
Anonymous, 2011 Marine Invertebrates of the National Park of American Samoa.
Anonymous, 2011 Underside of two yellow-mouthed drupes, Drupa grossularia snails.
ANS, Academy of Natural Sciences, 2007 Academy of Natural Sciences Malacology Database. Accessed through GBIF data portal, 13/09/2007.
ANS, Academy of Natural Sciences, 2007 Academy of Natural Sciences OBIS Mollusc Database [Darwin Core]. (accessed through GBIF data portal, 13/09/2007)
Arnaud, P.M., 1974 Contribution à la bionomie marine benthique des régions antarctiques et subantarctiques. Téthys 6(3):467-653.
Arnaud, P.M., 1972 Invertébrés marins des XIIème et XVème Expéditions Antarctiques Françaises en Terre Adélie 8. Gastéropodes prosobranchs. Tethys Suppl. 4:105-134.
Asgari, M., F.A. Yekta and S. Izadi, 2012 Dominant intertidal crustacean and gastropod species in Qeshm Island, Iran, northern Persian Gulf. Marine Biodiversity Records 5:1-8.
Ashton, T., J.M. Riascos and A. Pacheco, 2008 First record of Cymatium keenae Beu, 1970 (Mollusca: Ranellidae) from Antofagasta Bay, northern Chile, in connection with El Niño events. Helgol Mar Res 62 (Suppl 1):S107-S110.
Atlas of Living Australia, 2015 Occurrence of Clivipollia pulcher. [Accessed 1/29/2015].
Australian Faunal Directory, 2015 Chicomurex laciniatus (Sowerby, 1841). [Accessed 05/20/2015].
Australian Faunal Directory, 2015 Chicomurex venustulus (Rehder and Wilson, 1975). [Accessed 05/20/2015].
Australian Faunal Directory, 2015 Chicoreus territus (Reeve, 1845). [Accessed 05/20/2015].
Australian Faunal Directory, 2015 Pterynotus elongatus. [Accessed 05/28/2015].
Avon, C., 2016 2016 Gastropoda Pacifica. Accessed from
Backe, N., S. Davies, K. Conley, G. Kosmider, G. Rasmussen, H. Ibey and K. Ladell, 2011 Race Rocks (XwaYeN) proposed marine protected area ecosystem overview and assessment report. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2949:30p.
Bailey, S.K. and I.M. Davies, 1991 Continuing impact of TBT, previously used in mariculture, on dogwhelk (Nucella lapillus L.) populations in a Scottish Sea Loch. Marine Environmental Research 32(1-4):187-196.
Balazy, P., P. Kuklinski, M. Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, D. Barnes, M. Kedra, J. Legezynska and J.M. Weslawski, 2015 Hermit crabs (Pagurus spp.) at their northernmost range: distribution, abundance and shell use in the European Arctic. Polar Research 34:1-17.
Bamber, R.N., N.J. Evans and R.S. Robbins, 2008 The marine soft-sediment bethic communities of Hong Kong: a comparison of submarine cave and open habitats. J. Nat. Hist. 42(9-12):953-965.
Bañón, R., E. Rolán and M. García-Tasende, 2008 First record of the purple dye murex Bolinus brandaris (Gastropoda: Muricidae) and a revised list of non native molluscs from Galician waters (Spain, NE Atlantic). Aquatic Invasions 3(3):331-334.
Barria, C., M. Coll and J. Navarro, 2015 Unravelling the ecological role and trophic relationships of uncommon and threatened elasmobranchs in the western Mediterranean Sea (Supplement). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 539:225-240.
Bartley, D.M. (comp./ed.), 2006 DIAS. Introduced species in fisheries and aquaculture: information for responsible use and control (CD-ROM). Rome, FAO.
Batoy, C.B., 2050 Survey of the marine macrobenthic invertebrate fauna of coastal waters in selected places in Leyte and vicinity. Department of Plant Protection, Visayas State College of Agricultre, ViSCA, Baybay, Leyte 7127. pp 1-284.
Baums, I.B., M.W. Miller and A.M. Szmant, 2003 Ecology of a corallivorous gastropod, Coralliophila abbreviata, on two scleractinian hosts. II. Feeding, respiration and growth. Marine Biology 142:1093-1101.
Benkendorff, K., 2005 Intertidal molluscan and echinoderm diversity at Althorpe Island and Innes National Park, South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 129(2):145-157.
Benny, A. and K. Ayyakkannu, 1992 Length-weight relationship in Chicoreus ramosus. In Proc. Second Workshop of the Tropical Marine Mollusks. Phuket Marine Biological Centre, Thailand.
Berndt, T., N. Bourdon, R. Buchanan, A. Doane, L. Doyle, 2014 An introduction to marine invasive species. Marine Sciences Student Projects. Book 1.
Berthou, P., J.M. Poutiers, P. Goulletquer and J.C. Dao, 2009 Shelled molluscs. In Fisheries and Aquaculture, from Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK, [].
Bhuiyan, M.M.S., 2021 Malacofaunal diversity in Sonadia Island of Bangladesh. The Journal of Chandpur Government College 1(1):119-138.
Bifano, M.E., 1998 Conchas. Guia Prático. Nobel: Sãu Paulo.
Birkeland, C. and H. Manner, 1989 Resource survey of Ngerukewid Islands Wildlife Preserve, Republic of Palau. A report to the government of Palau, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, World Wildlife Fund, and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, 202p.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Black, R., A.I. Robertson, C.H. Peterson and N.M. Peterson, 1990 Fishes and benthos of near-shore seagrass and sandflat habitats at Monkey Mia Shark Bay, Western Australia. pp. 245-261 In Berry PF, Bradshaw SD, Wilson BR, editors. Research in Shark Bay: Report of the France-Australe Biocentenary Expedition Committee, Perth: Western Australia Museum.
Blackmore, G., 2001 Interspecific variation in heavy metal body concentrations in Hong Kong marine invertebrates. Environmental Pollution 114:303-311.
Blackmore, G.R., 1998 The importance of feeding ecology in investigating accumulated heavy metal body burdens in Thais clavigera (Küster) (Mollusca: Neogastropoda: Muricidae) in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Pok Fu Lam, University of Hong Kong, PhD Thesis, 252 p.
Blanchard, A.L., C.L. Parris, A.L. Knowlton and N.R. Wade, 2013 Benthic ecology of the northeastern Chukchi Sea. Part II. Spatial variation of megafaunal community structure, 2009-2010. Cotinental Shelf Research 67:67-76.
Bondarev, I.P., 2022 A new species of Boreotrophon P. Fischer, 1884 (Gastropoda, Muricidae, Pagodulinae) from the Sea of Japan. Ruthenica 32(2):81-84.
Boneka, F.B., L.T.X. Lalamentik and D. Cussoy, 1999 Feeding niche of Drupella (Muricidae: Prosobranchia) in the coral reefs of Bunaken Island, Indonesia. Phuket Mar. Biol. Cent. Special Publication:19(1):55-59.
Bouchet, P., 2011 Pagodula declinans (Watson, 1882). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at on 2011-07-26.
Boutson, A., K. Ebata, S. Ishikawa, K. Watanabe and T. Arimoto, 2016 Field guides on small-scale fisheries in Rayong, Thailand. Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, 79 p.
Boyko, C.B., 2003 The endemic marine invertebrates of Easter Island: how many species and for how long? In p. 155-175 Loret, J.; Tanacredi, J.T. (eds). 2003. Easter Island Scientific Exploration into the World's Environmental Problems in Microcosm. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. 240p.
Branch, G.M., C.L. Griffiths, M.L. Branch and L. Beckley, 2005 Two oceans: a guide to marine life in southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, 360 p.
Brawn, V.M., D.L. Peer and R.J. Bentley, 1968 Caloric content of the standing crop of benthic and epibenthic invertebrates of St. Margaret’s Bay, Nova Scotia. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 25:1803-1811.
Bright, D.A. and D.V. Ellis, 1990 A comparative survey of imposex in northeast Pacific neogastropods (Prosobranchia) related to tributyltin contamination, and choice of a suitable bioindicator. Can. J. Zool. 68:1915-1924.
Bright, T.J., 2010 A list of species from Glover's Reef Atoll, Belize. Wildlife Conservation Society. [Accessed 22/11/2010].
British Antarctic Survey, 2017 More losers than winners for Southern Ocean marine life. [Accessed 12/09/2017].
Brook, F.J., 1998 The coastal molluscan fauna of the northern Kermadec Islands, Southwest Pacific Ocean. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 28(2):185-233.
Brunt, M.A. and J.E. Davies, 2012 The Cayman Islands: natural history and biogeography. Springer Science and Business Media, 604 pp.
Bryan, G.W., P.E. Gibbs, L.G. Hummerstone and G.R. Burt, 1986 The decline of the gastropod Nucella lapillus around south-west England: evidence for the effect of tributylin from antifouling paints. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 66(3):611-640.
Butakov, E.A., V.D. Chuhchin, M.B. Cherkasova and S.G. Lelekov, 1997 Determinator of Gastropoda of the Black Sea. IBSS NASU, Sevastopol, 127p.
Cancino, J., J. Gallardo and F. Torres, 2003 Combined effects of dissolved oxygen concentration and water temperature on embryonic development and larval shell secretion in the marine snail Chorus giganteus (Gastropoda: Muricidae). Marine Biology 142(1): 133-139.
Cancino, J.M., J.A. Gallardo, F. Torres, G. Leiva and J.M. Navarro, 2000 Effects of sessile Protozoa on intracapsular oxygen tension and embryonic shell calcification in the muricid Chorus giganteus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 200:141-148.
Cantera, J.R. and P.M. Arnaud, 1984 Les Gastéropodes prosobranches des Îles Kerguelen et Crozet (de l'Océan Indien) comparison écologique et particularités biologiques. Comité National Française des Recherches Antarctiques 56:1-169.
Caras, T., 2001 Environmental management and biodiversity conservation of forests, woodlands, and wetlands of the Rufiji Delta and floodplain. Status of the marine habitat and resources adjacent to the Rufiji River outflow. Rufiji Environmental Management Project Technical Report (27):37 p.
Carbajal-Enzian, P., J. Santamaría and D. Baldárrag, 2018 Guía ilustrada para el reconocimiento de poliplacóforos, gasterópodos y cefalópodos con valor comercial en el Peru. Lima, Instituto del Mar del Perú (Imarpe).
Cárdenas, L., J.C. Castilla and F. Viard, 2009 A phylogeographical analysis across three biogeographical provinces of the south-eastern Pacific: the case of the marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas. Journal of Biogeography 36:969-981.
Cardigos, F., F. Tempera, S. Avila, J. Gonçalves, A. Colaço and R.S. Santos, 2006 Non-indigenous marine species of the Azores. Helgol Mar Res 60:160-169.
Carlier, A., P. Riera, J.-M. Amouroux, J.-Y. Bodiou and A. Grémare, 2007 Benthic trophic network in the Bay of Banyuls-sur-Mer (northwest Mediterranean, France): an assessment based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes analysis. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 72(1-2):1-15.
Carmona, R., J. Guzmán and J.F. Elorduy, 1995 Hatching, growth, and mortality of Magnificent Frigatebird chicks in Southern Baja California. Wilson Bull., 107:328-337.
Carpenter, K.E. and N. De Angelis (eds.), 2016 The living marine resources of the Eastern Central Atlantic. Vol. 2: Bivalves, gastropods, hagfishes, sharks, batoid fishes, and chimaeras. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes, Rome, FAO. pp. 665-1509.
Carpenter, K.E., F. Krupp, D.A. Jones and U. Zajonz, 1997 FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of Kuwait, Eastern Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. Rome, FAO. 293 p. 17 colour plates.
Carranza, A., A. Estrades, F. Scarabino and A. Segura, 2011 Loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta (Linnaeus) preying on the invading gastropod Rapana venosa (Valenciennes) in the Río de la Plata estuary. Marine Ecology 32:142-147.
Carranza, A., C. De Mello, A. Ligrone, S. González, P. Píríz and F. Scarabino, 2010 Observations on the invading gastropod Rapana venosa in Punta del Este, Maldonado Bay, Uruguay. Biological Invasions 12(5):995-998.
Carrasco, C.A., J.M. Navarro and G.E. Leiva, 2006 Biochemical composition and tissue weight of Chorus giganteus (Gastropoda: Muricidae) exposed to different diets and temperatures during reproductive conditioning. Interciencia 31(5):376-38
Cartwright, S.R., 2010 Facilitation of intertidal species against environmental stress by barnacles in tropical Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Pok Fu Lam, University of Hong Kong, PhD Thesis, 220 p.
Castellazzi, M., D. Savini and A.O. Ambrogi, 2007 Shell morphotypes of the invasive gastropod Rapana venosa in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Boll. Malacol 43(1-8): 103-107.
Cattaneo-Vietti, R., M. Chiantore, C. Misic and P. Povero, 1999 The role of pelagic-benthic coupling in structuring littoral benthic communities at Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea) and in the Straits of Magellan. Scientia Marina 63(Supl. 1):113-121.
Chalermwat, K. and F.E. Wells, 2008 Growth of Chicoreus capucinus (Gastropoda: Muricidae) at Ang Sila, Thailand. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 18:217-223.
Chao, M., Y. Shi, W. Quan, X. Shen, C. An, Q. Yuan and H. Huang, 2012 Distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in relation to environmental variables across the Yangtze River Estuary, China. Journal of Coastal Research 28(5):1008-1019.
Chapman, W.M. and A.H. Banner, 1949 Contributions to the life history of the Japanese oyster drill (Tritonalia japonica) with notes on the other enemies of the Olympia oyster (Ostrea lurida). Wash. Dept. Fish. Biol. Rept. 49A:167-200.
Cheung, P.-S.C., 1991 An intertidal survey of Cape d'Aguilar, Hong Kong with special reference to the ecology of high-zoned rock pools. Hong Kong: Pok Fu Lam, University of Hong Kong, MSc Thesis, 264 p.
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Chung, E.Y. and S-Y. Kim, 1997 Cytological studies on testicular maturation and cyclic changes in the epithelial cells of the seminal vessicle of the male purple shell Rapana venosa (Gastropoda: Muricidae). Malacological Review 30:25-38.
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