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References used for species in the Family Pharidae
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[ n = 186 ] 
Abbott, R.T., 1991 Seashells of South East Asia. Graham Bash, Singapore. 145 p.
Alexander, R.R. and G. Dietl, 2000 Frequency of shell repairs in common clams from New Jersey. Journal of Shellfish Research 19(1):658-659.
Alves, F., L. Chicharo, A. Nogueira and J. Regala, 2003 Changes in benthic community structure due to clam dreging on the Algarve coast and the importance of seasonal analysis. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 83:719-729.
Apostolidis, C.A. and K.I. Stergiou, 2008 A preliminary compilation of life-history data for Mediterranean marine invertebrates. In Palomares, M.L.D., Pauly, D. (Eds.), Von Bertalanffy Growth Parameters of Non-fish Organisms. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 16(10). Fisheries Centre, University of British Colombia [ISSN 1198-6727], pp. 102-121.
Arias, A. and N. Anadón, 2012 First record of Mercenaria mercenaria (Bivalvia: Veneridae) and Ensis directus (Bivalvia: Pharidae) on Bay of Biscay, Iberian Peninsula. Journal of Shellfish Research 31(1):57-60.
Arias, A., M. Fernández-Moreno, J. Fernández-Tajes, M.B. Gaspar and J. Méndez, 2011 Strong genetic differentiation among east Atlantic populations of the sword razor shell (Ensis siliqua) assessed with mtDNA and RAPD markers. Helgoland Marine Research 65(1):81-89.
Arias-Pérez, A., J. Fernández-Tajes, M.B. Gaspar and J. Méndez, 2012 Isolation of microsatellite markers and analysis of genetic diversity among east atlantic populations of the sword razor shell Ensis siliqua: a tool for population management. Biochemical genetics 50(5-6): 397-415.
Barón, P.J., L.E. Real, N.F. Ciocco and M.E. Ré., 2004 Morphology, growth and reproduction of an Atlantic population of the razor clam Ensis macha (Molina, 1782). Scientia Marina 68(2):211-217.
Bartley, D.M. (comp./ed.), 2006 DIAS. Introduced species in fisheries and aquaculture: information for responsible use and control (CD-ROM). Rome, FAO.
Belhabib, D., D. Pauly, S. Harper and D. Zeller, 2012 Marine fisheries catches in West Africa, 1950-2010, part I. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 20 (3).
Belhabib, D., S. Harper, D. Zeller and D. Pauly, 2013 Reconstruction of marine fisheries catches from Morocco (north, central and south), 1950-2010. pp 23-40.In Belhabib, D., Zeller, D., Harper, S., and Pauly, D. (eds.), Marine fisheries catches in West Africa, 1950-2010, part I. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 20 (3). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Canada.
Bernard, F.R., S.M. McKinnell and G.S. Jamieson, 1991 Distribution and zoogeography of the Bivalvia of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 112:60 pp.
Bernard, F.R., Y.Y. Cai and B. Morton, 1993 Catalogue of the living marine bivalve molluscs of China. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong. 121 p.
Berthou, P., J.M. Poutiers, P. Goulletquer and J.C. Dao, 2009 Shelled molluscs. In Fisheries and Aquaculture, from Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK, [].
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Brands, S.J., 2006 The Taxonomicon.
Bremec, C., T. Brey, M. Lasta, J. Valero and L. Lucifora, 2000 Zygochlamys patagonica beds on the Argentinian shelf. Part I: Energy flow through the scallop bed community. Archive of Fishery and Marine Research 48(3):295-303.
Cadée, G.C., 2000 Herring gulls feeding on a recent invader in the Wadden Sea, Ensis directus. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 177(1):459-464.
Cai, Y. and G. Liu, 2004 Bivalvia (Mollusca) in Nansha Islands, China. Journal of Zhanjiang Ocean University 24(1):1-8.
Cardoso, J., J. Witte and H. van der Veer, 2009 Reproductive investment of the American razor clam Ensis americanus in the Dutch Wadden Sea. Journal of Sea Research 62: 295-298.
Carlier, A., P. Riera, J.-M. Amouroux, J.-Y. Bodiou and A. Grémare, 2007 Benthic trophic network in the Bay of Banyuls-sur-Mer (northwest Mediterranean, France): an assessment based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes analysis. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 72(1-2):1-15.
Carpenter, K.E. and N. De Angelis (eds.), 2016 The living marine resources of the Eastern Central Atlantic. Vol. 2: Bivalves, gastropods, hagfishes, sharks, batoid fishes, and chimaeras. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes, Rome, FAO. pp. 665-1509.
Carro, N., I. García, M. Ignacio and A. Mouteira, 2012 Organochlorine pesticide levels in Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) from Ría de Vigo, Galicia (NW Spain): influence of season, condition index and lipid content. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology 88(4): 491-496.
Chen, J. and H. Ni, 1988 Studies on the age structure of population and its growth pattern of Cultellum scalprum (Gould). Journal of Xiamen Fisheries College 1(1):13-18.
Chen, P., 1995 A study on the biology of Cultellus scalprum. Acta Oceanologica Sinica 14(04):569-578.
Cheung, W.L., R. Watson and D. Pauly, 2013 Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch. Nature 497:365-368.
Clark, R.B. and A. Milne, 1955 The sublittoral fauna of two sandy bays on the isle of Cumbare, Firth Clyde. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 34:161-180.
Clarke, S. and O. Tully, 2011 Long-term effects of hydraulic dredging for razor clam (Ensis siliqua) on benthic invertebrate communities in the North West Irish Sea. Marine Institute Foras na Mara.
Cosel, R.V., J. Doerjes and U. Muehlenhardt-Siegel, 1982 The American jackknife clam Ensis directus (Conrad) in the German Bight. 1. Zoogeography and taxonomy in comparison with the native jacknife and razor clams. Senckenbergiana maritima 14:147-173.
Costa, C., M. Bianchini, P. Ceccarelli, P. Orecchia, E. Rambaldi and L. Volterra, 1987 Indagine sui molluschi bivalvi di interesse commerciale (telline, cannolicchi e vongole) delle coste della Toscana, del Lazio e della Campania, 1985-1987. Quaderni Ist. Idrobiol. Acquacolt. Brunelli, 7 n. doppio, 3-58.
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley, 1971 Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition).
Crisp, D.J., 1964 The effects of the winter of 1962/63 on the British marine fauna. Helgolander wiss. Meeresunters 10:313-27.
Cummins, P. and R. Haigh, 2010 Ecosystem status and trends report for North coast and Hecate Strait ecozone. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document 2010/045:67p.
Da Costa, F., D. Martínez-Patiño, J. Ojea and S. Nóvoa, 2010 Larval rearing and spat production of the razor clam Ensis siliqua (Bivalvia: Pharidae). Journal of Shellfish Research 29(2):347-351.
Daan, R. and M. Mulder, 2004 The macrobenthis fauna in the Dutch sector of the North Sea in 2004 and a comparison with previous data. Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research. Monitoring macrozoobenthos of the North Sea. NIOZ-Rapport 2005-3. 95 pp.
Dannheim, J. and H. Rumohr, 2011 The fate of an immigrant: Ensis directus in the eastern German Bight. Helgoland Marine Research 66(3):307-317.
Darr, A., M. Gogina and M.L. Zettler, 2014 Detecting hot-spots of bivalve biomass in the south-western Baltic Sea. Journal of Marine Systems 134:69-80.
Darriba, S., F. San Juan and A. Guerra, 2005 Gametogenic cycle of Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) in the Ría de Corcubión, northwestern Spain. Journal of Molluscan Studies 71:47-51.
Dauvin, J.C. and M. Joncourt, 1989 Energy values of marine benthic invertebrates from the western English Channel. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the U.K. 69:589-595.
Dauvin, J.C., T. Ruellet, T. Thiebaut, F. Gentil, N. Desroy, A.L. Janson, S. Duhamel, J. Jourde and N. Simon, 2007 The presence of Melinna palmata (Annelida: Polychaeta) and Ensis directus (Mollusca: Bivalvia) related to sedimentary changes in the Bay of Seine (English Channel, France). Cahiers de biologie marine 48(4):391-401.
Davis, J.P., 1981 Observations of prey preference and predatory behavior in Busycon carica (Gmelin) and Busycon canaliculata (Linn.). In Abstracts of Papers Presented at the General Scientific Meetings of the Marine Biological Laboratory August 18 to 21, 1981. Biological Bulletin 161:303-355.
Davoult, D., J.M. Dewarumez, C. Luczak and A. Migne, 1999 New reports of benthic species from the French coasts of the eastern English Channel and North Sea. Cah. Biol. Mar. 40(2):121-127.
De Smit, M. and K. Bába, 2002 New data to the marine malacofauna from Euboea Island (Greece). Malacological Newsletter 20:83-91.
Desroy, N., C. Warembourg, J. M. Dewarumez and J. C. Dauvin., 2002 Macrobenthic Resources of the Shallow Soft-bottom Sediments in the Eastern English Channel and Southern North Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 60: 120-131.
Dipper, F., 2003 The Lincolnshire and north Norfolk maritime area: a review of the past and present status of it's species and habitats. English Nature Research Reports 542. 96pp.
Dou, S.-Z. and J.-M. Yang, 1992 Feeding habit and seasonal variation in food content of Cynoglossus semilaevis (Günther) in the Bohai Sea. Acta Ecologica Sinica 12(4):368-376.
Dou, S.-Z. and J.-M. Yang, 1992 Feeding habit and seasonal variation in food content of Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae (Guther) in the Yellow River Estuary. Acta Oceanologica Sinica 14(6):103-112.
Dyrynda, E.A., R.J. Law, P.E.J. Dyrynda, C.A. Kelly, R.K. Pipe and N.A. Ratcliffe, 2000 Changes in immune parameters of natural mussel Mytilus edulis populations following a major oil spill ('Sea Empress', Wales, UK). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 206:155-170.
Eales, N.B., 1949 The food of the dogfish, Scyliorhinus caniculus L. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 28 (3). pp. 791-793.
Essink, K., 1986 Note on the distribution of the American jack knife clam Ensis directus (Conrad, 1843) in NW Europe (Bivalvia: Cultellidae). Basteria 50:33-34.
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Garilao, N., 2014 Baltic Sea species list. Personal communication, 25 April 2014. Provided excel file.
Garmendia, J.M., J.M. Parada and J. Mora, 2003 Niveles de penetración de los diferentes grupos macroinfaunales en los sedimentos arenosos sublitorales de la ría de Ares y Betanzos (Galicia) (noroeste de la península Ibérica). Bol. Inst. Esp. Oceanogr. 19 (1-4):283-291.
Gaspar, M.B., F. Leitão, M.N. Santos, L. Chícharo, M.D. Dias, A. Chícharo and C.C. Monteiro, 2003 A comparison of direct macrofaunal mortality using three types of clam dredges. ICES Journal of Marine Science 60:733-742.
Gaspar, M.B., M. Castro and C.C. Monteiro, 1998 Influence of tow duration and tooth length on the number of damaged razor clams Ensis siliqua. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 169:303-305.
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Gaspar, M.B., M.N. Santos and P. Vasconcelos, 2001 Weight-length relationships of 25 bivalve species (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from the Algarve coast (southern Portugal). J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 81:805-807.
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