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References used for species in the Family Spondylidae
( thorny oysters )
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[ n = 93 ] 
Adjeroud, M., S. Andréfouët and C. Payri, 2001 Mass mortality of macrobenthic communities in the lagoon of Hikueru atoll (French Polynesia). Coral Reefs 19:287-291.
Al-Ghamdi, S.A., 2011 The neolithic archaeology of the south west of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Durham University.
Al-Khayat, J.A. and M.A. Al-Ansi, 2008 Ecological features of oyster beds distribution in Qatari waters, Arabian Gulf. Asian Journal of Scientific Research 1(6):544-561.
Al-Yamani, F.Y., V. Skryabin, N. Boltachova, N. Revkov, M. Makarov, V. Grinstov and E. Kolesnikova, 2012 Illustrated Atlas on the Zoobenthos of Kuwait. Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research.
Allen, G.R. and R. Steene, 1996 Indo-Pacific coral reef field guide. Tropical Reef Research, Singapore, 378 p.
Allen, G.R. and S.A. McKenna, 2001 A marine Rapid Assessment of the Togean and Banggai Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 20, Conservation International, Washington, DC.
Amaral, F.M.D., C.M.R. Farrapeira, S.M.A. Lira, C.A.C. Ramos and R. Dom, 2010 Benthic macrofauna inventory of two shipwrecks from Pernambuco coast, northeastern of Brazil. Rev. Nordest. Zool 4(1):24-41.
Andrew, N. and M. Francis, 2003 The living reef. The ecology of New Zealand's rocky reefs. Craig Potton Publishing, New Zealand. 283pp.
Arana, I.L. and O.D. Díaz, 2006 Poliquetos (Annelida: Polychaeta) epibiontes de Spondylus americanus (Bivalvia: Spondylidae) en el parque nacional Mochima, Venezuela. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(3):765-772.
Bartley, D.M. (comp./ed.), 2006 DIAS. Introduced species in fisheries and aquaculture: information for responsible use and control (CD-ROM). Rome, FAO.
Batoy, C.B., 2050 Survey of the marine macrobenthic invertebrate fauna of coastal waters in selected places in Leyte and vicinity. Department of Plant Protection, Visayas State College of Agricultre, ViSCA, Baybay, Leyte 7127. pp 1-284.
Bernard, F.R., S.M. McKinnell and G.S. Jamieson, 1991 Distribution and zoogeography of the Bivalvia of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 112:60 pp.
Bernard, F.R., Y.Y. Cai and B. Morton, 1993 Catalogue of the living marine bivalve molluscs of China. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong. 121 p.
Birkeland, C. and H. Manner, 1989 Resource survey of Ngerukewid Islands Wildlife Preserve, Republic of Palau. A report to the government of Palau, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme, World Wildlife Fund, and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, 202p.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Brook, F.J., 1998 The coastal molluscan fauna of the northern Kermadec Islands, Southwest Pacific Ocean. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 28(2):185-233.
Brunt, M.A. and J.E. Davies, 2012 The Cayman Islands: natural history and biogeography. Springer Science and Business Media, 604 pp.
Cai, Y. and G. Liu, 2004 Bivalvia (Mollusca) in Nansha Islands, China. Journal of Zhanjiang Ocean University 24(1):1-8.
Calado, R., 2006 Marine ornamental species from European waters: a valuable overlooked resource or a future threat for the conservation of marine ecosystems?. Scientia Marina 70(3): 389-398.
Carlon, D.B., 2001 Depth-related patterns of coral recruitment and cryptic suspension-feeding invertebrates on Guana island, British Virgin Islands. Bulletin of Marine Science 68(3):525-541.
Carpenter, K.E. and N. De Angelis (eds.), 2016 The living marine resources of the Eastern Central Atlantic. Vol. 2: Bivalves, gastropods, hagfishes, sharks, batoid fishes, and chimaeras. FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes, Rome, FAO. pp. 665-1509.
Demir, M., 2003 Shells of mollusca collected from the seas of Turkey. Turkey Journal of Zoology 27:101-140.
Duffy, C.A.J. and S.T. Ahyong, 2015 Annotated checklist of the marine flora and fauna of the Kermadec Islands Marine Reserve and northern Kermadec Ridge, New Zealand. Bulletin of the Auckland Museum 20:19-124.
FAO-FIES, 2007 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 03/07/2008].
FAO-FIES, 2015 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 13/04/2015].
Finet, Y., N. Tirado-Sanchez, A. Chiriboga, D. Ruiz and S. Banks, 2016 CDF Checklist of Galapagos marine mollusks - FCD Lista de especies de Moluscos Marinos Galápagos. In Bungartz, F.; Herrera, H.; Jaramillo, P.; Tirado, N.; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G.; Ruiz, D.; Guézou, A.; Ziemmeck, F. (eds) Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Species Checklist - Lista de Especies de Galápagos de la Fundación Charles Darwin. Charles Darwin Foundation / Fundación Charles Darwin, Puerto Ayora, Galapagos.
Gardner, J.P.A., M.J. Curwen, J. Long, R.J. Williamson and A.R. Wood, 2006 Benthic community structure and water column characteristics at two sites in the Kermadec Islands Marine Reserve, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 40:179-194.
GBIF, 2015 Spondylus varius G.B. Sowerby I, 1827. [Accessed 05/25/2015].
GBIF, 2015 Spondylus candidus Lamarck, 1819. [Accessed 07/22/2015].
GBIF, 2015 Spondylus crassisquama Lamarck, 1819. [Accessed 08/28/2015].
George, D., 2005 Marine invertebrates. pp. 197-220 In Hellyer, P.; Aspinall, S. (eds) The Emirates: a natural history. Trident Press: Chicago.
George, J.D., 2012 Reef-associated macroinvertebrates of the SE Gulf. p. 253-308 In Riegl, B.M.; Purkis, S.J. (eds) 2012. Coral Reefs of the Gulf: adaptation to climatic extremes. Springer Science.
Glover, E.A. and J.D. Taylor, 1997 Diversity and distribution of subtidal molluscs from the outer continental shelf, Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. pp 281-305 Wells, F.E. (ed) The marine flora and fauna of the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, Western Australian Museum, Perth.
Goto, A., 1996 Some aspects of fishing among the Langalanga of Malaita Province, Solomon Islands. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin 7: 12-19.
Hasan, A.K., 1996 A taxonomic review of the bivalve and gastropod mollusc fauna along the Saudi intertidal zone of the Arabian Gulf. J. KAU Mar. Sci. 7:245-253.
Héros, V., P. Lozouet, P. Maestrati, R. von Cosel, D. Brabant and P. Bouchet, 2007 Mollusca of New Caledonia. pp. 199-254. In Payri, C.E.; Richer de Forges, B. (eds). Compendium of marine species in New Caledonia, Doc. Sci. Tech. II7, seconde edition, IRD, Noumea.
Hong, S.Y., K.Y. Park, C.W. Park, C.H. Han, H.L. Suh, S.G. Yun, C.B. Song, S.G. Jo, H.S. Lim, Y.S. Kang, D.J. Kim, C.W. Ma, M.H. Son, H.K. Cha, K.B. Kim, S.D. Choi, K.Y. Park, C.W. Oh, D.N. Kim, H.S. Shon, J.N. Kim et al., 2006 Marine invertebrates in Korean coasts. Republic of Korea, Academy Publishing Company, Inc. 479 p.
Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, 2007 Academy of Natural Sciences OBIS Mollusc Database. (accessed through GBIF data portal, 13/09/2007).
Iredale, T., 1910 On marine mollusca from the Kermadec Islands, and on the 'sinusigera apex'. Journal of Molluscan Studies 9(1):68-79.
Keeling, J.K., T.R. Irvine, P. Alderslade, G. Clapin, J. Fromont, A.M. Hosie, J.M. Huisman, J.C. Phillips, K.M. Naughton, L.M. Marsh, S.M. Slack-Smith, D.P. Thomson and J.E. Watson, 2011 Marine benthic flora and fauna of Gourdon Bay and the Dampier Peninsula in the Kimberley region of north-western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 94:285-301.
Lahser, C., 2014 Total Tripping. Trafford Publishing, 364 pp.
Lam, K., B. Morton and K.F. Leung, 2008 Shell-bearing Mollusca (Bivalvia and Gastropoda) from submarine caves in Hong Kong. J. Nat. Hist. 42(9-12):927-952.
Lamprell, K.L., 1992 Notes on Spondylus Linnaeus with descriptions of two new species from Western Australia (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Spondylidae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 32(1):189-194.
Lamprell, K.L. and R.N. Kilburn, 1995 The recent Spondylidae of South Africa and Mozambique, with the description of a new species (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinoidea). Moll. Res. 16:81-95.
Laureta, L.V., 2008 Compendium of the economically important seashells in Panay, Philippines. Quezon City: The University of the Philippines Press, c2008. 162 p.
Lodeiros, C., G. Soria, P. Valentich-Scott, A. Munguía-Vega, J.S. Cabrera, R. Cudney-Bueno, A. Loor, A. Marquez and S Sonnenholzner, 2016 Spondylids of Eastern Pacific Ocean. Journal of Shellfish Research 35(2):279-293., 2050
Melvill, J.C. and R. Standen, 1906 The Mollusca of the Persian Gulf, Gulf of Oman and Arabian Sea, as evidenced mainly trhough the collections of F.W.Townsend, 1893-1906; with descriptions of new species. Part II - Pelecypoda. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1906:783-848.
Mike Severns Diving, 2020 Hawaii's endemic species. [Accessed 13/08/2020].
Miller, J., 1972 A review of ecological researches done at Silut Bay, Liloan, Cebu. The Philippine Scientist IX:7-31.
Miloslavich, P., J.M. Díaz, E. Klein, J.J. Alvarado, C. Díaz, J. Gobin, E. Escobar-Briones, Motta, J.J. Cruz, E. Weil, J. Cortés, A.C. Bastidas, R. Roberston, F. Zapata, A. Martín, J. Castillo, A. Kazandjian and M. Ortiz, 2010 Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns. PLoS ONE 5(8):e11916.
Mohammed, S.Z. and J.A. Al-Khayat, 1994 A preliminary check-list of benthic Mollusca on the Qatari coasts, Arabian Gulf. Qatar Univ. Sci. J. 14(1):201-206.
Novikov, N.P., 1968 Basic elements of the biology of the Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus stenolepsis Schmidt) in the Bering Sea. p. 175-219. In P. Moiseev (ed.) Soviet fisheries investigations in the northeast Pacific, Part II.
OBIS, 2015 Spondylus occidens G.B. Sowerby III, 1903. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 4/21/2015].
OBIS, 2016 Spondylus gaederopus Linnaeus, 1758. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 4/25/2016].
Oliver, P.G., A.M. Holmes, I.J. Killeen, J.M. Light and H. Wood, 2004 Annotated checklist of the marine Bivalvia of Rodrigues. Journal of Natural History 38:3229-3272.
Oliver, W.R.B., 1914 The Mollusca of the Kermadec Islands. Trans. N.Z. Inst. 47:509-568.
Pante, E., M. Adjeroud, P. Dustan, L. Penin and M. Schrimm, 2006 Spatial Patterns of Benthic Invertebrate Assemblages Within Atoll Lagoons: Importance of Habitat Heterogeneity and Considerations for Marine Protected Area Design in French Polynesia. Aquat. Living Resour. 19: 207-217.
Papaconstantinou, C., A. Zenetos, V. Vassilopoulou and G. Tserpes, 2007 State of Hellenic Fisheries. Hellenic Centre for Marine Research P.O. Box 712, 190 13, Anavissos, Attiki, Hellas.
Paulay, G., 1996 New records and synonymies of Hawaiian Bivalves (Mollusca). Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 45:18-28.
Paulay, G., 2003 Marine Bivalvia (Mollusca) of Guam. Micronesica 35(36):218-243.
Paulay, G., 1989 Marine invertebrates of the Pitcairn Islands: species composition and biogeography of corals, molluscs, and echinoderms. Atoll Research Bulletin 326:1-28.
Pechenik, J.A., 2005 Biology of the Invertebrates. Fifth Edition. Mc-Graw-Hill. New York, USA. 590 p.
Poutiers, J.M., 1987 Bivalves (Acephales, Lamellibranches, Pelecypodes). pp. 370-389. In W. Fischer, M. Schneider, M.-L. Bauchot (eds.) Fiches FAO d'identification des espèces pour les besoins de la pêche. (Révision 1). Méditerranée et mer Noire. Zone de pêche 37. Volume I. Végétaux et Invertébrés. Publication préparée par la FAO, résultat d'un accord entre la FAO et la Commission des Communautés Européenes (Project GCP/INT/442/EEC) financée conjointment par ces deux organisations. Rome, FAO, Vol. 1.
Poutiers, J.M., 1998 Bivalves. Acephala, Lamellibranchia, Pelecypoda. p. 123-362. In Carpenter, K. E. and V. H. Niem. 1998. FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 1. Seaweeds, corals, bivalves, and gastropods. Rome, FAO.
Powell II, C.L., 1984 Bivalve molluscan paleoecology of northern exposures of the marine neogene imperial formation in riverside county, California. Western Society of Malacologists Annual Report 17:29-32.
Preece, R.C., 1995 The composition and relationships of the marine molluscan fauna of the Pitcairn Islands. The Pitcairn Island: biogeography, ecology and prehistory. Benton, T. G. and T. Spencer (eds). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 56:339-358.
Raines, B. and M. Huber, 2012 Biodiversity quadrupled - Revision of Eatser Island and Salas y Gómez bivalves. Zootaxa 3217:1-106.
Reef Life Survey, 2012 Reef Life Survey.
Richards, B.L., 2000 Marine and Terrestrial Species. [Accessed 04/05/2016].
Rocha, V.P., I.O. Silveira and H. Matthews-Cascon, 2015 Brazilian Spondylidae: a brief discussion about variation of shell ornamentation in the northeastern species. Arquivos de Ciências do Mar 48(2):79-84.
Rosenberg, G., 2009 Malacolog 4.1.1: A Database of Western Atlantic Marine Mollusca. [WWW database (version 4.1.1)] URL
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Slack-Smith, C.M. and C.W. Bryce, 2004 A survey of the benthic molluscs of the Dampier Archipelago, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement No. 66:221-245.
Sotto, F.B. and R. von Cosel, 1982 Some commercial bivalves of Cebu, Philippines. The Philippine Scientist 19(1982):43-101.
Springsteen, F.J. and F.M. Leobrera, 1986 Shells of the Philippines. Carfel Seashell Museum. Metro Manila, Philippines. 377 p.
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Streftaris, N. and A. Zenetos, 2006 Alien marine species in the Mediterranean - the 100 ‘worst invasives’ and their impact. Mediterranean Marine Science 7:87-118.
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Tröndlé, J. and M. Boutet, 2009 Inventory of marine molluscs of French Polynesia. Atoll Research Bulletin 570:1-90.
Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione and J.D. Willams, 1998 Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, 2nd ed. American Fisheries Society (Special publication 26), Bethesda, Maryland. 526 p.
Turgeon, D.D., W.G. Lyons, P. Mikkelsen, G. Rosenberg and F. Moretzsohn, 2009 Bivalvia (Mollusca) of the Gulf of Mexico. pp. 711-744 In Felder, D.L.; Camp, D.K. (eds.) Gulf of Mexico - Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.
United States National Park Service, 1978 Biscayne National Monument (N.M.), General Management Plan (GMP): Environmental Impact Statement. Northwestern University, 58 pp.
Valentich-Scott, P., 2003 A taxonomic, distributional and bibliographic checklist on Hong Kong marine bivalve molluscs and reserach published on them from 1971-2000. p. 259-310 In B. Morton (ed.) Perspectives on Marine Environmental Change in Hong Kong and Southern China, 1977-2001, Proceedings of an International Workshop Reunion Conference, 21-26 October 2001. Hong Kong University Press.
Wells, F.E., 2002 Molluscs of the Raja Ampat Islands, Papua province, Indonesia. In McKenna.
Werner, T.B. and G.R. Allen, 2000 A rapid marine biodiversity assessment of the Calamianes Islands, Palawan province, Philippines. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 17. Washington, D.C.:Conservation International., 2015 Spondylus varius. [Accessed 05/25/2015]., 2015 Sea Shells (128). [Accessed 05/22/2015].
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