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References used for species in the Family Asteriidae
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[ n = 146 ] 
Adami, M.L. and S. Gordillo, 1999 Structure and dynamics of the biota associated with Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta) from the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego. Sci. Mar. 63(Suppl 1):183-191.
Ahearn, C.G., 1995 Catalog of the type specimens of seastars (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 572. 59 p.
Allen, M.J., T. Mikel, D.. Cadien, J.E. Kalman, E.T. Jarvis, K.C. Schiff, D.W. Diehl, S.L. Moore, S. Walther, G. Deets, C. Cash, S. Watts, D.J. Pondella, V. Raco-Rands, C. Thomas, R. Gartman, L. Sabin, W. Power, A. Groce, J. Armstrong, 2007 Appendix F - Glossary and Nomenclature. [Accessed 31/05/2017].
Allen, P.L., 1983 Feeding behaviour of Asterias rubens (L.) on soft bottom bivalves: A study in selective predation. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 70(6):79-90.
Alvarado, J.J. and J. Cortés, 2009 Echinoderms. pp. 421-434. In I.S. Wehrtmann, J. Cortés (eds.) Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica, Central America. Springer 538 p.
Ambrose, W.G. Jr., L.M. Clough, P.R. Tilney and L. Beer, 2001 Role of echinoderms in benthic remineralization in the Chukchi Sea. Marine Biology 139:937-949.
Ameziane, N., 2007 Echinodermata of New Caledonia. pp. 337-347. In Payri, C.E., Richer de Forges, B. (eds.), Compendium of Marine Species of New Caledonia. Doc. Sci. Tech. II7, seconde édition, IRD Nouméa.
Andrew, N. and M. Francis, 2003 The living reef. The ecology of New Zealand's rocky reefs. Craig Potton Publishing, New Zealand. 283pp.
Anger, K., U. Rogal, G. Schriever and C. Valentin, 1977 In-situ investigations on the echinoderm Asterias rubens as a predator of soft-bottom communities in the western Baltic Sea. Helgoland Marine Research 29:439-459.
Arnaud, P.M., 1974 Contribution à la bionomie marine benthique des régions antarctiques et subantarctiques. Téthys 6(3):467-653.
Austin, W.C., 1999 Rare and endangered marine invertebrates in British Columbia. Proc. Biology and Management of Species and Habitats at Risk, Kamloops, B. C., 15-19, Feb 1999.
Bacallado, J.J., E. Moreno and A.P. Ruzafa, 1984 Echinodermata (Canary Islands) - provisional check-list. p. 149-151, Proceedings of the Fifth International Echinoderm Conference 24-29 September.
Bachali, S., X. Bailly, J. Jollès, P. Jollès and J.S. Deutsch, 2004 The lysozyme of the starfish Asterias rubens. European Journal of Biochemistry 271(2):237-242.
Backe, N., S. Davies, K. Conley, G. Kosmider, G. Rasmussen, H. Ibey and K. Ladell, 2011 Race Rocks (XwaYeN) proposed marine protected area ecosystem overview and assessment report. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2949:30p.
Barker, M.F. and D. Nichols, 1983 Reproduction, recruitment and juvenile ecology of the starfish, Asterias rubens and Marthasterias glacialis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 63(4):745-765.
Benham, W.B., 1911 Stellerids and echinids from the Kermadec Islands. Transactions of the New Zealand Institute 43:140-163.
Benkendorff, K., 2005 Intertidal molluscan and echinoderm diversity at Althorpe Island and Innes National Park, South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 129(2):145-157.
Bergmann, M. and P.G. Moore, 2001 Mortality of Asterias rubens and Ophiura ophiura discarded in the Nephrops fishery of the Clyde Sea area, Scotland. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil 58(3):531-542.
Bergmann, M., N. Langwald, J. Ontrup, T. Soltwedel, I. Schewe, M. Klages and T.W. Nattkemper, 2011 Megafaunal assemblages from two shelf stations west of Svalbard. Marine Biology Research 7:523-539.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Blanchard, A.L., C.L. Parris, A.L. Knowlton and N.R. Wade, 2013 Benthic ecology of the northeastern Chukchi Sea. Part II. Spatial variation of megafaunal community structure, 2009-2010. Cotinental Shelf Research 67:67-76.
Blankley, W.O., 1984 Ecology of the starfish Anasterias rupicola at Marion Island (Southern Ocean). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 18:131-137.
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Brawn, V.M., D.L. Peer and R.J. Bentley, 1968 Caloric content of the standing crop of benthic and epibenthic invertebrates of St. Margaret’s Bay, Nova Scotia. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 25:1803-1811.
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Budd, G., 2008 Asterias rubens. Common starfish. Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme [on-line]. Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. [cited 06/05/2015]. Available from:
Callaway, R., J. Alsvag, I. de Boois, J. Cotter, A. Ford, H. Hinz, S. Jennings, I. Kroncke, J. Lancaster, G. Piet, P. Prince and S. Ehrich, 2002 Diversity and community structure of epibenthic invertebrates and fish in the North Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science 59:1199-1214.
Chao, S.-M., 2000 New records of sea stars (Asteroidea: Echinodermata) from the continental shelf of Taiwan. Zoological Studies 39(3):275-284.
Cherbonnier, G. and A. Guille, 1975 Échinodermes récoltés aux íles Kerguelen. Bull. Mus. Natn. Hist. natn. 210:600-644.
Clark, A.M. and M.E. Downey, 1992 Starfishes of the Atlantic. Chapman & Hall Identification Guides, 3. Chapman & Hall: London, UK. 794 p.
Costello, D.P. and C. Henley, 1971 Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos. Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (Second Edition).
Coteur, G., M. Warnau, M. Jangoux and P. Dubois, 2002 Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by amoebocytes of Asterias rubens (Echinodermata). Fish & Shellfish Immunology 12(3):187-200.
Cusson, M., P. Archambault and A. Aitken, 2007 Biodiversity of benthic assemblages on the Arctic continental shelf: historical data form Canada. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 331:291-304.
Czeczuga, B., 1977 Comparative studies of carotenoids in the fauna of the Gullmar Fjord (Bohuslan, Sweden) III. Echinodermata. Hydrobiologia 53(3):271-275.
Dahl, L., 2002 Temporal, spatial and substrate dependent variations of Danish hard-bottom macrofauna. Helgol Mar Res 56:159-168.
Dalgiç, G., Y. Ceylan and C. Şahin, 2009 The Atlantic starfish, Asterias rubens Linnaeus, 1758 (Echinodermata: Asteroidea: Asteriidae) spreads in the Black Sea. Aquatic Invasions 4(3):485-486.
Danis, B., P. Wantier, S. Dutrieux, R. Flammang, P. Dubois and M. Warnau, 2004 Contaminant levels in sediments and asteroids (Asterias rubens L., Echinodermata) from the Belgian coast and Scheldt estuary: polychlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals. Science of the Total Environment 333(1):149-165.
Department of Fisheries, Western Australia, 2000 Introduced Marine Aquatic Invaders- a field guide.
DiSalvo, L.H., J.E. Randall and A. Cea, 1988 Ecological reconnaissance of the Easter Island sublittoral marine environment. National Geographic Research 4(4):451-473.
Duffy, C.A.J. and S.T. Ahyong, 2015 Annotated checklist of the marine flora and fauna of the Kermadec Islands Marine Reserve and northern Kermadec Ridge, New Zealand. Bulletin of the Auckland Museum 20:19-124.
Elahi, R., 2012 Diversity and structure of subtidal rock walls in the Salish Sea: the roles of grazing, oceanography, and long-term change. Biology, Doctor of Philosophy, University of Washington, 151pp.
Ellis, J.R., G. Burt and S.I. Rogers, 2007 Epifaunal sampling in the Celtic Sea. ICES ASC 2007 Theme Session A23.
Ellis, J.R., S.I. Rogers and S.M. Freeman, 2000 Demersal assemblages in the Irish Sea, St George's channel and Bristol channel. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 51(3):299-315.
Entrambasaguas, L., Á. Pérez-Ruzafa, J.A. García-Charton, B. Stobart and J.J. Bacallado, 2008 Abundance, spatial distribution and habitat relationships of echinoderms in the Cabo Verde Archipelago (eastern Atlantic). Marine and Freshwater Research 59:477-488.
FAO-FIES, 2008 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, 29 April 2008.
FAO-FIES, 2007 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 03/07/2008].
FAO-FIES, 2015 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 13/04/2015].
Feder, H.M. and S.C. Jewett, 1977 Trawl survey of the epifaunal invertebrates of Norton Sound, southeastern Chukchi Sea, and Kotzebue Sound. Final Report to NOAA. R.U. No. 502. 148 p.
Feder, H.M., S.C. Jewett and A. Blanchard, 2005 Southeastern Chukchi sea (Alaska) epibenthos. Polar Biol 28:402-421.
Feldman, A., 1995 Development rates in the larvae of the starfish Asterias rubens (Echinodermata: Asteroida) with respect to two food rations. pp. 263 -267. In Echinoderm Research 1995, CRC Press, 341 p.
Fell, H.B., 1948 The constitution and relations of the New Zealand echinoderm fauna. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77(5):208-212.
Ferriss, B. E., J. C. Reum, P. S. McDonald, D. M. Farrell and C. J. Harvey, 2016 Evaluating trophic and non-trophic effects of shellfish aquaculture in a coastal estuarine foodweb. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil 73(2): 429-440.
Fricke, A.H., K. Koop and G. Cliff, 1982 Colonization and viability of an artificial steel reef in False Bay, South Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 44(4):499-512.
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Gardner, J.P.A., M.J. Curwen, J. Long, R.J. Williamson and A.R. Wood, 2006 Benthic community structure and water column characteristics at two sites in the Kermadec Islands Marine Reserve, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 40:179-194.
Garilao, N., 2014 Baltic Sea species list. Personal communication, 25 April 2014. Provided excel file.
Glagolev, S.M., L.A. Abramova and A.A. Vedenin, 2006 The list of invertebrate animal species of the Chupa Bay (Kandalaksha Gulf, White Sea). The materials of the White Sea Expedition of Moscow Southwest High School Vol. 6. http://herba, [Accessed 23/04/2007]
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Guillou, M., 1996 Biotic and abiotic interactions controlling starfish outbreaks in the Bay of Douarnenez, Brittany, France. Oceanologica acta 19(3-4):415-420.
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