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References used for species in the Family Mussidae
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[ n = 98 ] 
ARKive, 2015 Starry cup coral (Acanthastrea brevis). [Accessed 01/28/2015].
Aronson, R., A. Bruckner, J. Moore, B. Precht and E. Weil, 2008 Scolymia lacera. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T132874A3471788. Downloaded on 08 August 2016.
Arrigoni, R., T.I. Terraneo, P. Galli and F. Benzoni, 2014 Lobophylliidae (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) reshuffled: pervasive non-monophyly at genus level. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 73:60-64.
Babcock, R.C., 2003 Identification of Sclerectinian Coral Recruits from Indo-Pacific Reefs. Zoological Studies 42 (1):211-226.
Batoy, C.B., 2050 Survey of the marine macrobenthic invertebrate fauna of coastal waters in selected places in Leyte and vicinity. Department of Plant Protection, Visayas State College of Agricultre, ViSCA, Baybay, Leyte 7127. pp 1-284.
Belize Marine Tropical Research and Education Center., 2011 Species lists.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Branch, G.M., C.L. Griffiths, M.L. Branch and L. Beckley, 2005 Two oceans: a guide to marine life in southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, 360 p.
Bright, T.J., 2010 A list of species from Glover's Reef Atoll, Belize. Wildlife Conservation Society. [Accessed 22/11/2010].
Bruno, J.F., C.E. Siddon, J.D. Witman, P.L. Colin and M.A. Toscano, 2001 El niño related coral bleaching in Palau, Western Caroline Islands. Coral Reefs 20:127-136.
Cairns, S.D., D.R. Calder, A. Brinckmann-Voss, C.B. Castro, D.G. Fautin, P.R. Pugh, C.E. Mills, W.C. Jaap, M.N. Arai, S.H.D. Haddock and D.M. Opresko, 2003 Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophore, Second Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication, no,28. XI+115.
Cairns, S.D., W.C. Jaap and J.C. Lang, 2009 Scleractinia (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico. pp. 333-347 In Felder, D.L.; Camp, D.K. (eds.) Gulf of Mexico - Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.
Chan, A.L.K., K.K. Chan, C.L.S. Choi, D. McCorry, M.W. Lee and P.J. Ang, 2005 Field guide to hard corals of Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Friends of the Country Parks, 373p.
CITES, 2011 Appendices I, II and III valid from 27 April 2011. UNEP.
CITES, 2013 Appendices I, II and III valid from 12 June 2013. UNEP.
CITES, 2015 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 05 February 2015. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. Http:// [Accessed 04/11/2015].
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2017 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 04 October 2017. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 08/17/2017].
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2021 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 14 February 2021. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 16 February 2021].
Coles, S.L., 1996 Chapter three: Descriptions of Oman corals and their habitats.. Corals of Oman. Downloaded from on 30 April 2009.
Collin, R., M.C. Díaz, J. Norenburg, R.M. Rocha, J.A. Sánchez, M. Schulze, A. Schwartz and A. Valdés, 2005 Photographic identification guide to some common marine invertebrates of Bocas Del Toro, Panama. Caribbean Journal of Science. 41(3):638-707.
Cortés, J., 2009 Stony corals. p. 169-174 In Wehrtmann, I.S. and Cortés, J. 2009. Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica, Central America. Springer 538pp.
Dai, C.-F. and T.-Y. Fan, 1996 Coral fauna of Taiping Island (Itu Aba Island) in the Spratleys of the South China Sea. Atoll Research Bulletin 436:1-21.
Fabricius, K.E., J.C. Mieog, P.L. Colin, D. Idip and J.H. Van Oppen, 2004 Identity and diversity of coral endosymbionts (zooxanthellae) from three Palauan reefs with contrasting bleaching, temperature and shading histories. Molecular Ecology 13:2445-2458.
FAO-FIES, 2007 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 03/07/2008].
Fautin, D.G., 2007 Hexacorallians of the World.[accessed08/07/16]
Fenner, D., 1999 New observations on the stony coral (Scleractinia, Milleporidae, and Stylasteridae) species of Belize (Central America) and Cozumel (Mexico). Bull. Mar. Sci. 64(1):143-154.
Fenner, D. and P. Muir, 2013 Reef corals of the northwestern lagoon of Grande-Terre, New Caledonia. A Rapid Marine Biodiversity Assessment of the Coral Reefs of the Northwest Lagoon, between Koumac and Yandé, Province Nord, New Caledonia:18-32. 2013. Conservation International.
Floriday Keys National Marine Sanctuary, 2004 Floriday Keys National Marine Sanctuary Species List. Floriday Keys National Marine Sanctuary Resources [accessed 09/07/2008].
Friedlander, A.M., J.E. Caselle, E. Ballesteros, E.K. Brown, A. Turchik and E. Sala, 2014 The real bounty: marine biodiversity in the Pitcairn Islands. PLoS ONE 9(6):e100142.
GBIF, 2015 Lobophyllia robusta Yabe, Sugiyama and Eguchi, 1936. [Accessed 02/23/2015].
GBIF, 2014 Scolymia vitiensis Bruggemann, 1877. [Accessed 12/04/2014].
Ghasemi, S., N. Mola, M. Hoseinpour, F. Hosseini-Tayefeh, A. Naji and J. Pakravan, 2015 Coral diversity of Hengam Island, Persian Gulf, Iran. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences 5(6):43-52.
Glynn, P.W., G.M. Wellington, B. Riegl, D.B. Olson, E. Borneman and E.A. Wieters, 2007 Diversity and biogeography of the Scleractinian coral fauna of Easter Island (Rapa Nui). Pacific Science 61(1): 67-90.
Guest, J.R., A.H. Baird, B.P.L. Goh and L.M. Chou, 2005 Seasonal reproduction in equatorial reef corals. Invertebrate Reproduction & Development 48(1-3):207-218.
Hodgson, G., 1998 Corals. p. 101-122. In Carpenter, K.E. and V.H. Niem (eds) FAO species identifidication guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 1. Seaweeds, coral, bivalves and gastropods. FAO Rome.
Hodgson, G. and K. Carpenter, 1995 Scleractinian corals of Kuwait. Pacific Science 49(3):227-246.
IUCN, 2010 2010 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.2. Downloaded in August 2010.
IUCN, 2006 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. [Accessed 04/07/2007].
IUCN, 2014 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. IUCN 2014. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. [Accessed 12/12/2014].
LaJeunesse, T.C., 2002 Diversity and community structure of symbiotic dinoflagellates from Caribbean coral reefs. Marine Biology 141:387-400.
Latypov, Y.Y., 2003 Reef-building corals and reefs of Vietnam: 1. The Gulf of Thailand. Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29(1):S22-S33.
Latypov, Y.Y., 2003 Reef-building corals and reefs of Vietnam: 2. The Gulf of Tonkin. Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29(1):S34-S45.
Latypov, Y.Y., 1986 Coral communities of the Namsu Islands (Gulf of Siam, South China Sea). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 9:261-270.
Lewis, J.B., 1975 A preliminary description of the coral reefs of the Tobago Cays, Grenadines and West Indies. Atoll Research Bulletin 178:1-14., 2050
Mazlan, A.G., C.C. Zaidi, W.M. Wan-Lotfi and B.H.R. Othman, 2005 On the current status of coastal marine biodiversity in Malaysia. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 34(1):76-87.
McCorry, D., 2002 Hong Kong's scleractinian coral communities: status, threats and proposals for management. Hong Kong: Pok Fu Lam, University of Hong Kong, PhD Thesis, 304 p.
McKenna, S.A., M. Hosken and N. Baillon, 2011 Evaluation rapide de la biodiversité marine du lagon Nord-est de Touho à Ponérihouen, province Nord, Nouvelle-Calédonie. RAP Bulletin of Biological Assessment 62. Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA.
Meerman, J.C. and J. Clabaugh, 2005 Class Anthozoa. Biodiversity and Environmental Resource Data System of Belize. [Accessed 21/10/10].
Miller, J., 1972 A review of ecological researches done at Silut Bay, Liloan, Cebu. The Philippine Scientist IX:7-31.
Miloslavich, P., J.M. Díaz, E. Klein, J.J. Alvarado, C. Díaz, J. Gobin, E. Escobar-Briones, Motta, J.J. Cruz, E. Weil, J. Cortés, A.C. Bastidas, R. Roberston, F. Zapata, A. Martín, J. Castillo, A. Kazandjian and M. Ortiz, 2010 Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns. PLoS ONE 5(8):e11916.
National Ocean Service., 2050 Coral cap species of Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary. Accessed online from on 9 December 2013.
Nemenzo, F. Sr., 1986 Guide to Philippine Flora and Fauna. Corals. Natural Resources Management Center, Ministry of Natural Resources and University of the Philippines. 5:273 pp.
OBIS, 2015 Lobophyllia hemprichii (Ehrenberg, 1834). OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 3/31/2015].
OBIS, 2015 Lobophyllia corymbosa (Forskål, 1775). OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 3/31/2015].
Paulay, G., 1989 Marine invertebrates of the Pitcairn Islands: species composition and biogeography of corals, molluscs, and echinoderms. Atoll Research Bulletin 326:1-28.
Pichon, M., 2006 Scleractinia of New Caledonia: check list of reef dwelling species. In: pp.147-155, Payri, C.E., Richer de Forges, B. (eds) Compendium of marine species from New Caledonia.
Pratchett, M.S., 2007 Feeding preferences of Acanthaster planci (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) under controlled conditions of food availability. Pacific Science 61(1):113-120.
Randall, R.H., 1995 Biogeography of reef-building corals in the Mariana and Palau Islands in relation to back-arc rifting and the formation of the eastern Philippine Sea. Nat. Hist. Res. 3(2):193-210.
Richards, B.L., 2000 Marine and Terrestrial Species. [Accessed 04/05/2016].
Richmond, R.H. and C.L. Hunter, 1990 Reproduction and recruitment of corals: comparisons among the Caribbean, the Tropical Pacific, and the Red Sea. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 60(1):185-203.
Riegl, B.M., F. Benzoni, K. Samimi-Namin and C. Sheppard, 2012 The hermatypic scleractinian (hard) coral fauna of the Gulf. Coral Reefs of the Gulf 3:187-224.
Ross, M.A. and G. Hodgson, 1981 A quantitative study of hermatypic coral diversity and zonation at Apo Reef, Mindiro, Philippines. Proceedings of the Fourth International Coral Reef Syposium, Manila 2:281-291.
Ruppert, E.E., R.S. Fox and R.D. Barnes, 2004 Invertebrate Zoology. A functional evolutionary approach. 7th Ed. Brooks/Cole, Thomson Learning learning, Inc. 990 p.
Samiei, J.V., K. Dab, P. Ghezellou and A. Shirvani, 2013 Some scleractinian corals (Scleractinia: Anthozoa) of Larak Island, Persian Gulf. Zootaxa 3636(1):101-143.
Santos, M.E.A., E. Faria-Junior, A.W. Aued, L. Peluso, M.V. Kitahara, D.O. Pires and C. Zilberberg, 2020 Benthic Cnidaria community in the oceanic archipelago of Trindade and Martin Vaz, southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Regional Studies in Marine Science 33:1-8.
Scaps, P., V. Denis, S. Berhimpon and F. Runtukahu, 2007 Zooxanthellate scleractinian corals of the northern coast of Sulawesi. Atoll Research Bulletin 553:1-21.
Shlesinger, Y., T.L. Goulet and Y. Loya, 1998 Reproductive patterns of scleractinian corals in the northern Red Sea. Marine Biology 132(4):691-701.
Smithsonian Institution, 2017 Acanthastrea echinata (Dana, 1846). [Accessed 27/06/2017].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Acanthastrea ishigakiensis Veron. [Accessed 01/09/2015].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Symphyllia valenciennesii Milne Edwards and Haime, 1849. [Accessed 01/09/2015].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Lobophyllia diminuta Veron. [Accessed 01/09/2015].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Lobophyllia hataii Yabe et al. , 1936. [Accessed 01/09/2015].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Acanthastrea bowerbanki Milne-Edwards and Haime, 1857. [Accessed 01/09/2015].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Lobophyllia pachysepta Chevalier. [Accessed 01/09/2015].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Cynarina lacrymalis (Milne Edwards and Haime). [Accessed 01/09/2015].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Acanthastrea hillae Wells. [Accessed 01/09/2015].
Smithsonian Institution, 2014 Scolymia vitiensis Brüggemann. [Accessed 12/02/2014].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Symphyllia agaricia Milne Edwards and Haime. [Accessed 01/09/2015].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Symphyllia recta (Dana). [Accessed 01/09/2015].
Songco, A., 2019 Personal communication. Tubbataha species list. Excel file "MyReport_Species_21May2019".
Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility, 2015 Acanthastrea hemprichii Ehrenberg, 1834. [Accessed 02/23/2015].
Turak, E., C. Sheppard and E. Wood, 2008 Lobophyllia diminuta. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T133619A3831529. [Accessed 09/06/2021].
UNEP-WCMC, 2010 UNEP-WCMC Species Database: CITES-Listed Species. [Accessed 08/07/2010].
United States National Park Service, 1978 Biscayne National Monument (N.M.), General Management Plan (GMP): Environmental Impact Statement. Northwestern University, 58 pp.
Veron, J.E.N., 2000 Corals of the world. Volume 2. Australian Institute of Marine Science and CRR Qld. Pty. Ltd. Australia. 429 p.
Veron, J.E.N., 2000 Corals of the world. Volume 3. Australian Institute of Marine Science and CRR Qld. Pty. Ltd. Australia. 490 p.
Veron, J.E.N., 2000 Corals of the world. Volume 1. Australian Institute of Marine Science and CRR Qld. Pty. Ltd. Australia. 463 p.
Veron, J.E.N. and G. Hodgson, 1989 Annotated checklist of the hermatypic corals of the Philippines. Pacific Science 43:234-287.
Wells, J.W., 1964 The recent solitary mussid scleractinian corals. Zoologische Mededelingen 39:375-384.
White, A.T., 2001 Philippine Coral Reef: A Natural History Guide. Bookmark Inc. and SUlu Fund for Marine Conservation Foundation, Inc., Manila, 276 pp.
Wilson, J.R. and P.L. Harrison, 2003 Spawning patterns of scleractinian corals at the Solitary Islands -- a high latitude coral community in eastern Australia. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 260:115-123., 2015 Lobophyllia robusta. [Accessed 03/27/2015]., 2015 Acanthastrea lordhowensis. [Accessed 03/24/2015]., 2015 Acanthastrea hemprichii-Hemprich'Brain Coral. [Accessed 03/24/2015]., 2015 Acanthastrea rotundoflora. [Accessed 03/24/2015]., 2016 Stony Corals LPS (524). [Accessed 05/12/2016]., 2015 Micromussa amakusensis. [Accessed 03/27/2015].
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