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References used for species in the Family Caryophylliidae
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[ n = 179 ] 
Addamo, A.M., J.D. Reimer, M. Taviani, A. Freiwald and A. Machordom, 2012 Desmophyllum dianthus (Esper, 1794) in the scleractinian phylogeny and its intraspecific diversity. PLoS ONE 7(11):e50215.
Andrew, N. and M. Francis, 2003 The living reef. The ecology of New Zealand's rocky reefs. Craig Potton Publishing, New Zealand. 283pp.
Baco, A.R., N. Morgan, E.B. Roark, M. Silva, K.E. Shamberger and K. Miller, 2017 Defying dissolution: discovery of deep-sea scleractinian coral reefs in the North Pacific. Scientific Reports 7(1):5436.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Braga-Henriques, A.,, F.M. Porteiro, P.A. Ribeiro, V.D. Matos, Í. Sampaio, O. Ocaña and R.S. Santos, 2013 Diversity, distribution and spatial structure of the cold-water coral fauna of the Azores (NE Atlantic). Biogeosciences 10(6):4009-4036.
Bright, T.J., 2010 A list of species from Glover's Reef Atoll, Belize. Wildlife Conservation Society. [Accessed 22/11/2010].
British Antarctic Survey, 2017 More losers than winners for Southern Ocean marine life. [Accessed 12/09/2017].
Brook, F.J., 1999 The coastal scleractinian coral fauna of the Kermadec Islands, southwestern Pacific Ocean. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 29:4, 435-460.
Burd, B.J., P.A.G. Barnes, C.A. Wright and R.E. Thomson, 2008 A review of subtidal benthic habitats and invertebrate biota of the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Marine Environmental Research 66:S3-S38.
Cairns, S., 1979 The deep-water Scleractinia of the Caribbean Sea and adjacent waters. Studies on the Fauna of Curaçao and other Caribbean Islands 57( Issue 1):1-341.
Cairns, S.D., 2006 New records of azooxanthellate Scleractinia from the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 87:45-53.
Cairns, S.D., 1984 New records of ahermatypic corals (Scleractinia) from the Hawaiian and Line Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 25(10):1-30.
Cairns, S.D., 1991 A revision of the ahermatypic Scleractinia of the Galápagos and Cocos Islands. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 514:1-59.
Cairns, S.D., 1982 Antarctic and Subantarctic Scleractinia. Antarctic Research Series 34:1-74.
Cairns, S.D., 2004 The Azooxanthellate Scleractinia (Coelenterata: Anthozoa) of Australia. Records of the Australian Museum 56:259-329.
Cairns, S.D., 1998 Azooxanthellate Scleractinia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 18:361-417.
Cairns, S.D., 1995 The marine fauna of New Zealand: Scleractinia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). New Zealand Oceanography Institute Memoirs. Vol. 103. 210 p.
Cairns, S.D., 1999 Species richness of recent Sclerectinia. Atoll Research Bulletin 459, 46 pp.
Cairns, S.D. and V. Polonio, 2013 New records of deep-sea Scleractinia off Argentina and the Falkland Islands. Zootaxa 3691(1):58-86.
Cairns, S.D., B.W. Hoeksema and J. van der Land, 1999 Appendix: list of extant stony corals. Atoll Research Bulletin 459:13-46.
Cairns, S.D., D.R. Calder, A. Brinckmann-Voss, C.B. Castro, D.G. Fautin, P.R. Pugh, C.E. Mills, W.C. Jaap, M.N. Arai, S.H.D. Haddock and D.M. Opresko, 2003 Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophore, Second Edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication, no,28. XI+115.
Cairns, S.D., W.C. Jaap and J.C. Lang, 2009 Scleractinia (Cnidaria) of the Gulf of Mexico. pp. 333-347 In Felder, D.L.; Camp, D.K. (eds.) Gulf of Mexico - Origins, Waters, and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas.
Callaway, R., J. Alsvag, I. de Boois, J. Cotter, A. Ford, H. Hinz, S. Jennings, I. Kroncke, J. Lancaster, G. Piet, P. Prince and S. Ehrich, 2002 Diversity and community structure of epibenthic invertebrates and fish in the North Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Science 59:1199-1214.
Census of marine life's education and outreach team, 2008 Census of Marine Life: 2007/2008 highlights report. University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography's Office of Marine Programs.
Chiriboga, A., D. Ruiz, N. Tirado-Sanchez and S. Banks, 2016 CDF Checklist of Galapagos corals, gorgonians, sea anemones and hydroids-FCD Lista de especies de Corales, gorgonias, anemones de mar y hydroides alápagos. In Bungartz, F.; Herrera, H.; Jaramillo, P.; Tirado, N.; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G.; Ruiz, D.; Guézou, A.; Ziemmeck, F. (eds) Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Species Checklist - Lista de Especies de Galápagos de la Fundación Charles Darwin. Charles Darwin Foundation / Fundación Charles Darwin, Puerto Ayora, Galapagos.
Çinar, M.E., M.B. Yokes, S. Acik and A.K. Bakir, 2014 Checklist of Cnidaria and Ctenophora from the coasts of Turkey. Turkish Journal of Zoology 38:677-697.
CITES, 2010 Appendices I, II and III valid from 23 June 2010. UNEP.
CITES, 2011 Appendices I, II and III valid from 27 April 2011. UNEP.
CITES, 2012 Appendices I, II and III valid from 3 April 2012. UNEP.
CITES, 2013 Appendices I, II and III valid from 12 June 2013. UNEP.
CITES, 2015 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 05 February 2015. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. Http:// [Accessed 04/11/2015].
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2017 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 04 October 2017. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 08/17/2017].
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2021 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 14 February 2021. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 16 February 2021].
CMFRI, 2015 Annual report 2014-15. Central Marine Fisheries Institute, Cochin. 353 p.
Cortés, J., 2009 Stony corals. p. 169-174 In Wehrtmann, I.S. and Cortés, J. 2009. Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica, Central America. Springer 538pp.
Currie, D.R. and S.J. Sorokin, 2011 A comparison of megafaunal biodiversity in two contrasting submarine canyons on Australia's southern continental margin. SARDI Research Report Series No. 519:55p.
Duffy, C.A.J. and S.T. Ahyong, 2015 Annotated checklist of the marine flora and fauna of the Kermadec Islands Marine Reserve and northern Kermadec Ridge, New Zealand. Bulletin of the Auckland Museum 20:19-124.
Duncan, P.M., 1876 Notices of some deep-sea and littoral corals from the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean, Indian, New-Zealand, Persian Gulf, and Japanese & c. Seas. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1876:428-442.
Duncan, P.M., 1889 On the Madreporaria of the Mergui Archipelago collected for the Trustees of the Indian Museum, Calcutta by Dr. John Anderson, F.R.S., Superintendent of the Museum. Journal of the Linnaean Society, London 21:1-25.
Edinger, E.N., V.E. Wareham and R.L. Haedrich, 2007 Patterns of groundfish diversity and abundance in relation to deep-sea coral distributions in Newfoundland and Labrador waters. Bulletin of Marine Science 81:101-122.
Ellis, J.R., G. Burt and S.I. Rogers, 2007 Epifaunal sampling in the Celtic Sea. ICES ASC 2007 Theme Session A23.
Fallon, S.J., R.E. Thresher and J. Adkins, 2014 Age and growth of the cold-water scleractinian Solenosmilia variabilis and its reef on SW Pacific seamounts. Coral Reefs 33(1):31-38.
Fautin, D.G., 2007 Hexacorallians of the World.[accessed08/07/16]
Fenner, D., 1999 New observations on the stony coral (Scleractinia, Milleporidae, and Stylasteridae) species of Belize (Central America) and Cozumel (Mexico). Bull. Mar. Sci. 64(1):143-154.
Fenner, D. and P. Muir, 2013 Reef corals of the northwestern lagoon of Grande-Terre, New Caledonia. A Rapid Marine Biodiversity Assessment of the Coral Reefs of the Northwest Lagoon, between Koumac and Yandé, Province Nord, New Caledonia:18-32. 2013. Conservation International.
Fosså, J.H., B. Lindberg, O. Christensen, T. Lundälv, I. Svellingen, P.B. Mortensen and J. Alvsvåg, 2005 Mapping of Lophelia reefs in Norway: experiences and survey methods. In A. Freiwald and J.M. Roberts (eds.), Cold-Water Corals and Ecosystems, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Freiwald, A., J.H. Fossa, A. Grehan, T. Koslow and R. Roberts, 2004 Cold-water coral reefs: out of sight -- no longer out of mind. UNEP
Gardner, J., 2010 Subtidal biodiversity and community composition of the Kermadec Islands. pp. 42-45 In Pew Environment Group. 2010. Deep: talks and thoughts celebrating diversity in New Zealand's untouched Kermadecs. Proceedings of the Kermadec Symposium, August 2010. 98p.
Garilao, N., 2014 Baltic Sea species list. Personal communication, 25 April 2014. Provided excel file.
Gauthier, M., J.M.R. Curtis, K.S.P. Gale, S.K. Archer and D.R. Haggarty, 2018 Sgaan Kinghlas-Bowie Seamount marine protected area species inventory: algae, Cnidaria, Bryozoa and Porifera. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 3196:64p.
GBIF, 2017 Anomocora prolifera (Pourtalès, 1871) in GBIF Secretariat. GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Checklist dataset accessed via on 2019-05-24
GBIF, 2015 Heterocyathus aequicostatus Milne Edwards and Haime, 1848. [Accessed 02/25/2015].
Gibson, R., B. Hextall and A. Rogers, 2001 Photographic Guide to the Sea and Shore Life of Britain and Northwest Europe. Oxford University Press Inc., New York.
Göthel, H., 1992 Guide de la faune sous-marine: La Méditerranée. Invertébrés marins et poissons. Eygen Ulmer GmbH & Co. 318 p.
Gotshall, D.W., 2005 Guide to marine invertebrates: Alaska to Baja California, 2nd ed. (revised). Sea Challengers. 117 p.
Hall-Spencer, J., V. Allain and J.H. Fossa, 2002 Trawling damage to northeast Atlantic ancient coral reefs. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 269:507-511.
Häussermann, V. and G. Försterra, 2009 Marine benthic fauna of Chilean Patagonia. Santiago, Nature in Focus. 1000 p.
Hodgson, G. and K. Carpenter, 1995 Scleractinian corals of Kuwait. Pacific Science 49(3):227-246.
Hogg, O.T., D.K.A. Barnes and H.J. Griffiths, 2011 Highly diverse, poorly studied and uniquely threatened by climate change: an assessment of marine biodiversity on South Georgia's continental shelf. PLoS ONE 6(5):e19795.
Hong, S.Y., K.Y. Park, C.W. Park, C.H. Han, H.L. Suh, S.G. Yun, C.B. Song, S.G. Jo, H.S. Lim, Y.S. Kang, D.J. Kim, C.W. Ma, M.H. Son, H.K. Cha, K.B. Kim, S.D. Choi, K.Y. Park, C.W. Oh, D.N. Kim, H.S. Shon, J.N. Kim et al., 2006 Marine invertebrates in Korean coasts. Republic of Korea, Academy Publishing Company, Inc. 479 p.
Howell, K.L., R.D. Bullimore and N.L. Foster, 2014 Quality assurance in the identification of deep-sea taxa from video and image analysis: response to Henry and Roberts. ICES Journal of Marine Science 71(4):899-906.
Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, 2007 Hexacoral Database. (accessed through GBIF data portal, 13/09/2007).
Integrated Taxonomic Information System, 2003 Integrated Taxonomic Information System database.
IUCN, 2010 2010 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.2. Downloaded in August 2010.
James, P.S.B.R., 1969 Catalogue of types and of sponges, corals, polychaetes, crabs and echinoderms in the reference collections of the Central Marine Fisheries Institute. Bull.Cent.mar. Fish. Res. Inst. 7:83p.
Jensen, A. and R. Frederiksen, 1992 The fauna associated with the bank-forming deepwater coral Lophelia pertusa on the Faroe shelf. Sarsia 77:53-69.
Jia, X., Z. Li, C. Li, Y. Qiu and J. Gan, 2004 Studies on the ecosystem and commercial fisheries resources in commercial zone and the continental shelf in South China Sea. Science Publishing, Beijing, 647 p.
Keeling, J.K., T.R. Irvine, P. Alderslade, G. Clapin, J. Fromont, A.M. Hosie, J.M. Huisman, J.C. Phillips, K.M. Naughton, L.M. Marsh, S.M. Slack-Smith, D.P. Thomson and J.E. Watson, 2011 Marine benthic flora and fauna of Gourdon Bay and the Dampier Peninsula in the Kimberley region of north-western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 94:285-301.
Keller, N.B., 2014 Deep-sea fauna of European seas: An annotated species check-list of benthic invertebrates living deeper than 2000 m in the seas bordering Europe. Scleractinia. Invertebrate Zoology 11(1):248-253.
Keller, N.B., 1993 New records of deep sea madreporarian corals in the southern parts of the Atlantic and Indian oceans. In Vinograova, N. C. (ed.) Novye nakhodki glubokovodnykh madreporariji v yuzhnoj chasti Atlanticheskogo I Indijskogo okeanov, 86 - 96 p.
Kenchington, E., T. Siferd and C. Lirette, 2012 Arctic marine biodiversity: indicators for monitoring coral and sponge megafauna in the eastern Arctic. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document 2012/2003:42p.
Kim, W. and H.S. Kim, 1982 Classification and geographical distribution of Korean crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura). Proceedings of the College of Natural Science, Seoul National University 7(1):133-159.
Kitahara, M. V., J. Stolarski, S. D. Cairns, F. Benzoni, J. L. Stake and D. J. Miller, 2012 The first modern solitary Agariciidae (Anthozoa, Scleractinia) revealed by molecular and microstructural analysis. Invertebrate Systematics 26(3):303-315.
Kitahara, M. V., S. D. Cairns and D. J. Miller, 2010 Monophyletic origin of Caryophyllia (Scleractinia, Caryophylliidae), with descriptions of six new species. Systematics and Biodiversity. 8(1): 91-118.
Kitahara, M.V., 2007 Species richness and distribution of azooxanthellate scleractinia in Brazil. Bulletin of Marine Science 81(3):497-518.
Kitahara, M.V. and S.D. Cairns, 2008 New records of the genus Crispatotrochus (Scleractinias Caryophylliidae) from New Caledonia, with description of a new species. Zootaxa 1940:59-68.
Kitahara, M.V. and S.D. Cairns, 2009 A revision of the genusDeltocyathus Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848 (Scleractinia, Caryophylliidae) from New Caledonia, with the description of a new species. Zoosystema 31(2):233-248.
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Latypov, Y., 2014 A solitary deep-water corals of the scleractinian of the Vietnamese shelf. American Journal of Zoological Research 2(1): 5-15.
Latypov, Y.Y., 1986 Coral communities of the Namsu Islands (Gulf of Siam, South China Sea). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 9:261-270.
Latypov, Y.Y., 2003 Reef-building corals and reefs of Vietnam: 1. The Gulf of Thailand. Russian Journal of Marine Biology 29(1):S22-S33.
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Miloslavich, P., J.M. Díaz, E. Klein, J.J. Alvarado, C. Díaz, J. Gobin, E. Escobar-Briones, Motta, J.J. Cruz, E. Weil, J. Cortés, A.C. Bastidas, R. Roberston, F. Zapata, A. Martín, J. Castillo, A. Kazandjian and M. Ortiz, 2010 Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns. PLoS ONE 5(8):e11916.
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Mondal, T., C. Raghunathan and K. Venkataraman, 2017 First report of four species of azooxanthellate scleratinian corals in Indian waters from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indian Journal of Geo Marine Sciences 46(8):1627-1631.
Montagna, P., M. McCulloch, M. Taviani, A. Remia and G. Rouse, 2005 High-resolution trace and minor element compositions in deep-water scleractinian corals (Desmophyllum dianthus) from the Mediterranean Sea and the Great Australian Bight. p.1109-1126 In Friedwald, A.; Roberts, J.M. (eds) Cold-water corals and ecosystems. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
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OBIS, 2015 Caryophyllia aspera Kitahara, Cairns and Miller, 2010. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 2/27/2015].
OBIS, 2015 Caryophyllia concreta Kitahara, Cairns and Miller, 2010. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 2/27/2015].
OBIS, 2015 Caryophyllia laevigata Kitahara, Cairns and Miller, 2010. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 2/27/2015].
OBIS, 2015 Caryphyllia oblonga Kitahara, Cairns and Miller, 2010. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 2/27/2015].
OBIS, 2015 Caryophyllia versicolorata Kitahara, Cairns and Miller, 2010. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 2/27/2015].
OBIS, 2015 Crispatotrochus rubescens (Moseley, 1881). OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 7/2/2015].
OBIS, 2015 Crispatotrochus rugosus Cairns, 1995. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 7/2/2015].
OBIS, 2015 Crispatotrochus septumdentatus Kitahara and Cairns, 2008. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 2/27/2015].
OBIS, 2015 Deltocyathus ornatus Gardiner, 1899. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 5/28/2015].
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OBIS, 2016 Paracyathus stokesii Milne Edwards & Haime, 1848. OBIS Search Interface. [Accessed 5/27/2016].
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Ramiro Sanchez, B., J.M. Gonzalez Irusta, L.A. Henry, J. Cleland, I. Yeo, J. Xavier, M. Carreiro-Silva, I. Sampaio, J. Spearman, L. Victorero, C.G. Messing, G. Kazanidis, J.M. Roberts and B. Murton, 2019 Characterization and mapping of a deep-sea sponge ground on the Tropic Seamount (Northeast tropical Atlantic): implications for spatial management in the High Seas. Frontiers in Marine Science.
Randall, R.H., 2003 An annotated checklist of hydrozoan and scleractinian corals collected from Guam and other Mariana Islands. Micronesica 35-36:121-137.
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Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Anomocora prolifera (Pourtales, 1871). [Accessed 08/09/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Bourneotrochus stellulatus (Cairns, 1984). [Accessed 01/14/2015].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Caryophyllia barbadensis Cairns, 1979. [Accessed 08/09/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Caryophyllia berteriana. [Accessed 08/09/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Caryophyllia horologium Cairns, 1877. [Accessed 09/08/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Caryophyllia (Caryophyllia) oblonga Kitahara et al., 2010. [Accessed 3/4/2015].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Coenocyathus parvulus (Cairns, 1979). [Accessed 09/08/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Coenosmilia arbuscula Pourtalès, 1874. [Accessed 08/09/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Concentrotheca laevigata (Pourtalès). [Accessed 08/09/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Crispatotrochus septumdentatus Kitahara and Cairns, 2008. [Accessed 01/27/2015].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Dactylotrochus cervicornis (Moseley, 1881). [Accessed 01/14/2015].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Dasmosmilia variegata (Pourtalès). [Accessed 08/09/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Deltocyathus eccentricus Cairns, 1979. [Accessed 08/09/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Deltocyathus moseleyi Cairns, 1979. [Cairns, 1979.
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Deltocyathus ornatus Gardiner, 1899. [Accessed 01/14/2015].
Smithsonian Institution, 2017 Desmophyllum dianthus (Esper, 1794). [Accessed 21/07/2017].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Oxysmilia rotundifolia (Milne Edwards and Haime, 1849). [Accessed 08/09/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Paracyathus parvulus Gardiner. [Accessed 01/14/2015].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Paracyathus parvulus Gardiner. [Accessed 3/4/2015].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Phyllangia pequegnatae Cairns, 2000. [Accessed 08/09/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Polycyathus senegalensis Chevalier, 1966. [Accessed 08/09/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2014 Polycyathus verrilli Duncan. [Accessed 12/02/2014].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Pourtalosmilia conferta Cairns, 1978. [Accessed 08/09/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2015 Tethocyathus minor (Gardiner, 1899). [Accessed 01/14/2015].
Smithsonian Institution, 2016 Thalamophyllia gombergi Cairns, 1979. [Accessed 08/09/2016].
Smithsonian Institution, 2014 Trochocyathus cooperi (Gardiner). [Accessed 12/01/2014].
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