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References used for species in the Family Phocidae
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[ n = 154 ] 
Adam, P.J., 2014 Monachus tropicalis. Mammalian species 747:1-9.
Aerts, L.A.M., A.E. McFarland, B.H. Watts, K.S. Lomac-MacNair, P.E. Seiser, S.S. Wisdom, A.V. Kirk and C.A. Schudel, 2013 Marine mammal distribution and abundance in an offshore sub-region of the northeastern Chukchi Sea during the open-water season. Continental Shelf Research 67:116-126.
Akpan, N., 2014 Scienceshot: elephant seals are packed with 'toxic' carbon monoxide. Science
Allen, B.M. and R.P. Angliss, 2014 Ringed seal (Phoca hispida hispida): Alaska stock. NOAA Alaska Marine Mammal Stock Assessments. NOAA-TM-AFSC-301.
Andersen, M. and J. Aars, 2016 Barents Sea polar beards (Ursus maritimus): population biology and anthropogenic threats. Polar Research 35(1):1-20.
Antonelis, G.A., S.R. Melin and Y.A. Bukhtiyarov, 1994 Early spring feeding habits of bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus) in the Central Bering Sea, 1981. Arctic 47:74-79.
Authier, M., K. Delord and C. Guinet, 2011 Population trends of female elephant seals breeding on the Courbet Peninsula, iles Kerguelen. Polar Biol 34:319-328.
Backe, N., S. Davies, K. Conley, G. Kosmider, G. Rasmussen, H. Ibey and K. Ladell, 2011 Race Rocks (XwaYeN) proposed marine protected area ecosystem overview and assessment report. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2949:30p.
Bailleul, F., J.-P. Charrassin, P. Monestiez, F. Roquet, M. Biuw and M. Guinet, 2007 Successful foraging zones of southern elephant seals from the Kerguelen Islands in relation to oceanographic conditions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 362:2169-2181.
Barr, W., 1988 The Helgoland Expedition to Svalbard: Die Deutsche Expedition in das Nordliche Eismeer, 1898. Arctic 41(3):203-214.
Belikov, S.E. and A.N. Boltunov, 1998 The ringed seal (Phoca hispida) in the western Russian Arctic. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, 1:63-82.
Bengtson, J.L., L.M. Hiruki-Raring, M.A. Simpkins and P.L. Boveng, 2005 Ringed and bearded seal densities in the eastern Chukchi Sea, 1999-2000. Polar Biology 28:833-845.
Bester, M.N. and P.Y. Lenglart, 1982 An analysis of the southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) breeding population at Kerguelen. Afr J Antarct Res 12:11-16.
Bianchi, G., K.E. Carpenter, J.-P. Roux, F.J. Molloy, D. Boyer and H.J. Boyer, 1999 FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. Field guide to the living marine resources of Namibia. Rome, FAO. 265 p., 11 plates.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Bjørke, H., 2001 Predators of the squid Gonatus fabricii (Lichtenstein) in the Norwegian Sea. Fish. Res. 52(1-2):113-120.
Bjørke, H. and H. Gjøsæter, 1998 Who eats the larger Gonatus fabricii (Lichtenstein) in the Norwegian Sea? International Council for the Exploration of the Sea CM/M: 10.
Boveng, P.L., J.L. Bengtson, Cameron. M.F., S.P. Dahle, E.A. Logerwell, J.M. London, J.E. Overland, J.T. Sterling, D.E. Stevenson, B.L. Taylor and H.L. Ziel, 2013 Status review of the ribbon seal (Histriophoca fasciata). NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-AFSC-255.
Bowen, W.D. and G.D. Harrison, 1994 Offshore diet of grey seals Halichoerus grypus near Sable Island, Canada. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 112:1-11.
Bowen, W.D., D. Tully, D.J. Boness, B.M. Bulheier and G.J. Marshall, 2002 Prey-dependent foraging tactics and prey profitability in a marine mammal. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 244:235-245.
Bowen, W.D., J. Lawson and B. Beck, 1993 Seasonal and geographic variation in the species composition and size of prey consumed by grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) on the Scotian Shelf. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 50:1768-1778.
Boyd, I.L., T.A. Arnborn and M.A. Fedak, 1994 Biomass and energy consumption of the South Georgia population of southern elephant seals. In Elephant seals: population ecology, behavior, and physiology (eds. B.J. Le Boeuf and R.M. Laws), University of California Press, Berkley. Pp. 98-117.
Brown, E.G. and G.J. Pierce, 1998 Monthly variation in the diet of harbour seals in inshore waters along the southeast Shetland (UK) coastline. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 167:275-289.
Bukhtiyarov, Y.A., K.J. Frost and L.F. Lowry, 1984 New information on foods of the spotted seal, Phoca largha, in the Bering Sea in spring. Soviet-American Coperative Research on Marine Mammals 1:55-59.
Burns, J.J. and K.J. Frost, 1979 The natural history and ecology of the bearded seal, Erignathus barbatus. Environmental Assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf Final Reports 19:311-392.
Cameron, M.F., J.L. Bengtson, P.L. Boveng, J.K. Jansen, B.P. Kelly, S.P. Dahle, E.A. Logerwell, J.E. Overland, C.L. Sabine, G.T. Waring and J.M. Wilder, 2010 Status review of the bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus). NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-AFSC-211:246p.
Casaux, R., A. Baroni and A. Carlini, 1997 The diet of the Weddell seal Leptonychotes weddelli at Harmony Point, South Shetland Islands. Polar Biol. 18:371-375.
Chambellant, M., I. Stirling and S.H. Ferguson, 2013 Temporal variation in western Hudson Bay ringed seal Phoca hispida diet in relation to environment. Marine Ecology Progress Series 481:269-287.
Cherel, Y., C.-A. Bost, C. Guinet and H. Weimerskirch, 2005 Feeding habits of seabirds and marine mammals of the Kerguelen Archipelago. pp. 31-36 In Palomares, M.L.D., Pruvost, P., Pitcher, T.J., Pauly, D. (eds.) Modeling Antarctic marine ecosystems. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 13(7). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Cherel, Y., S. Ducatez, C. Fontaine, P. Richard and C. Guinet, 2008 Stable isotopes reveal the trophic position and mesopelagic fish diet of female southern elephant seals breeding on the Kerguelen Islands. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 370:239-247.
CITES, 2009 Appendices I, II and III valid from 22 May 2009. UNEP.
CITES, 2010 Appendices I, II and III valid from 23 June 2010. UNEP.
CITES, 2011 Appendices I, II and III valid from 27 April 2011. UNEP.
CITES, 2012 Appendices I, II and III valid from 3 April 2012. UNEP.
CITES, 2013 Appendices I, II and III valid from 12 June 2013. UNEP.
CITES, 2014 Appendices I, II and III valid from 24 June 2014. UNEP.
CITES, 2015 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 05 February 2015. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. Http:// [Accessed 04/11/2015].
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2016 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 10 March 2016. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 23/06/2016].
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2017 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 04 April 2017. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 01/08/2017].
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2017 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 04 October 2017. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 08/17/2017].
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2021 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 14 February 2021. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 16 February 2021].
Clarke, M.R., 1983 Cephalopod biomass-estimation from predation. 44:95-107. In C.F.E. Roper, C.C. Lu and F.G. Hochberg (eds.) Memoirs of the National Museum of Victoria: Proceedings of the Workshop on the Biology and Resource Potential of Cephalopods, Melbourne, Australia, 9-13 March, 1981.
Clarke, M.R., M.B. Santos and G.J. Pierce, 1998 The importance of cephalopods in the diets of marine mammals and other top predators. International Council for the Exploration of the Sea: The impact of Cephalopods in the Food Chain and Their Interaction with the Environment CM/M: 8.
Crawford, J.A., L.T. Quakenbush and J.J. Citta, 2015 A comparison of ringed and bearded seal diet, condition and productivity between historical (1975-1984) and recent (2003-2012) periods in the Alaskan Bering and Chukchi seas. Progress in Oceanography 136:133-150.
Croxall, J.P. and P.A. Prince, 1996 Dead or alive, night or day: how do albatrosses catch squid. Antarc. Sci. 6(2):155-162.
Cummins, P. and R. Haigh, 2010 Ecosystem status and trends report for North coast and Hecate Strait ecozone. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document 2010/045:67p.
Daneri, G.A., A.R. Carlini, A. Negri, A.L. Allcock and A. Corbalán, 2012 Predation on cephalopods by Weddell seals, Leptonychotes weddellii, at Hope Bay, Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Biology 35(4):585-592.
Daneri, G.A., A.R. Carlini, E.R. Marschoff, A. Harrington, J. Negrete, J.A. Mennucci and M.E.I. Márquez, 2014 The feeding habits of the Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, at Isla 25 de Mayo/King George Island, South Shetland Islands. Polar Biology 1-12.
Day, R.H., T.J. Weingartner, R.R. Hopcroft, L.A.M. Aerts, A.L. Blanchard, A.E. Gall, B.J. Gallaway, D.E. Hannay, B.A. Holladay, J.T. Mathis, B.L. Norcross, J.M. Questel and S.S. Wisdom, 2013 The offshore northeastern Chukchi Sea, Alaska: a complex high-latitude ecosystem. Continental Shelf Research 67:147-165.
De Pierrepont, J.F., B. Dubois, S. Desormonts, M.B. Santos and J.P. Robin, 2005 Stomach contents of English Channel cetaceans stranded on the coast of Normandy. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 85:1539-1546.
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Dehn, L., G.G. Sheffield, E.H. Follmann, L.K. Duffy, D.L. Thomas and T.M. O'Hara, 2007 Feeding ecology of phocid seals and some walrus in the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic as determined by stomach contents and stable isotope analysis. Polar Biol. 30:167-181.
Derocher, A.E. and O. Wiig, 2002 Postnatal length and mass of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) at Svalbard. J. Zool. Lond. 256:343-349.
Dommasnes, A., V. Christensen, B. Ellertsen, C. Kvamme, W. Melle, L. Nøttestad, T. Pedersen, S. Tjelmeland and D. Zeller, 2001 An ecopath model for the Norwegian sea Barents sea. p. 213-240. In S. Guénette, V. Christensen and D. Pauly (eds.) Fisheries impacts on North Atlantic ecosystems: models and analyses. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 9(4).
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Gol'din, P.E., 2004 Growth and body size of the Harbour Porpoise, Phocoena phocoena (Cetacea, Phocoenidae), in the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea. Vestnik zoologii 38(4):59-73.
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