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References used for species in the Family Otariidae
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[ n = 111 ] 
Amorocho, D.F. and R.D. Reina, 2007 Feeding ecology of the East Pacific green sea turtle Chelonia mydas agassizii at Gorgona National Park, Colombia. Endangered Species Research 3:43-51.
Arnould, J.P.Y. and R.M. Warneke, 2002 Growth and condition in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) (Carnivora: Pinnipedia). Australian Journal of Zoology 50(1):53-66.
Aurioles-Gamboa, D., C.J. Hernandez-Camacho and E. Rodriguez-Krebs, 1999 Notes on the southernmost records of the Guadalupe fur seal, Arctocephalus townsendi, in Mexico. Marine Mammal Science 15():581-583.
Aurioles-Gamboa, D., Y. Schramm and S. Mesnick, 2004 Galapagos fur seals, Arctocephalus galapagoensis, in Mexico. The Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 3(1):77-80.
Backe, N., S. Davies, K. Conley, G. Kosmider, G. Rasmussen, H. Ibey and K. Ladell, 2011 Race Rocks (XwaYeN) proposed marine protected area ecosystem overview and assessment report. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2949:30p.
Bailleul, F., S. Luque, L. Dubroca, J.P.Y. Arnould and C. Guinet, 2005 Differences in foraging strategy and maternal behaviour between two sympatric fur seal species at the Crozet Islands. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 293:273-282.
Bauer, R.D., R.S. Peterson and V.B. Scheffer, 1964 Age of northern Fur Seal at completion of its frist molt. Journal of Mammalogy 45(2):299-300.
Belcher, R. L. and T.E. Lee Jr., 2002 Arctocephalus townsendi. American Society of Mammalogists, Mammalian Species No. 700.
Bianchi, G., K.E. Carpenter, J.-P. Roux, F.J. Molloy, D. Boyer and H.J. Boyer, 1999 FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. Field guide to the living marine resources of Namibia. Rome, FAO. 265 p., 11 plates.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Borradaile, L.A., 1898 Stomatopoda. On some crustaceans from South Pacific, Part 1. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London:32-38.
Byrnes, P.E. and W.R. Hood, 1994 First account of Stellar sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) predation on a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Marine Mammal Science 10(3):381-383.
Cane, K.N., J.P.Y. Arnould and K.R. Nicholas, 2005 Characterisation of proteins in the milk of fur seals. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 141:111-120
Capella, J.J., L. Florez-Gonzalez, P. Falk-Fernandez and D.M. Palacios, 2002 Regular appearance of Otariid pinnipeds along the Colombian Pacific coast. Aquatic Mammals 28.1-67-72.
Carey, P.W., 1992 Fish prey species of the New Zealand fur seal, (Arctocephalus forsteri, Lesson). N. Z. J. Ecol. 16(1):41-46.
Casaux, R., A. Baroni and A. Carlini, 1998 The diet of the Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella at Harmony Point, Nelson Island, South Shetland Islands. Polar Biol. 20:424-428.
Casaux, R., A. Baroni and A. Ramón, 2003 Diet of Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella at the Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula. Polar Biol. 26:49-54.
Casaux, R., L. Bellizia and A. Baroni, 2004 The diet of the Antarctic fur seal Arctocephalus gazella at Harmony Point, South Shetland Islands: evidence of opportunistic foraging on penguins? Polar Biol. 27:59-65.
Cherel, Y., C. Guinet and Y. Tremblay, 1997 Fish prey of Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella at Ile de Croy, Kerguelen. Polar Biol 17: 87-90.
Cherel, Y., C.-A. Bost, C. Guinet and H. Weimerskirch, 2005 Feeding habits of seabirds and marine mammals of the Kerguelen Archipelago. pp. 31-36 In Palomares, M.L.D., Pruvost, P., Pitcher, T.J., Pauly, D. (eds.) Modeling Antarctic marine ecosystems. Fisheries Centre Research Reports 13(7). Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Cherel, Y., S. Ducatez, C. Fontaine, P. Richard and C. Guinet, 2008 Stable isotopes reveal the trophic position and mesopelagic fish diet of female southern elephant seals breeding on the Kerguelen Islands. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 370:239-247.
Childerhouse, S., B. Dix and N. Gales, 2001 Diet of New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) at the Auckland Islands. Wildlife Research 28(3):291-298.
CITES, 2011 Appendices I, II and III valid from 27 April 2011. UNEP.
CITES, 2012 Appendices I, II and III valid from 3 April 2012. UNEP.
CITES, 2013 Appendices I, II and III valid from 12 June 2013. UNEP.
CITES, 2014 Appendices I, II and III valid from 24 June 2014. UNEP.
CITES, 2015 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 05 February 2015. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. Http:// [Accessed 04/11/2015].
CITES, 2009 Appendices I, II and III valid from 22 May 2009. UNEP.
CITES, 2010 Appendices I, II and III valid from 23 June 2010. UNEP.
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2016 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 10 March 2016. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 23/06/2016].
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2017 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 04 April 2017. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 01/08/2017].
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2017 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 04 October 2017. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 08/17/2017].
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2021 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 14 February 2021. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 16 February 2021].
COSEWIC, 2003 COSEWIC assessment and update status report on the Steller sea lion Eumetopias jubatus in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (
Cummins, P. and R. Haigh, 2010 Ecosystem status and trends report for North coast and Hecate Strait ecozone. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document 2010/045:67p.
Dabin, W., G. Beauplet, E.A. Crespo and C. Guinet, 2004 Age structure, growth, and demographic parameters in breeding-age female subantarctic fur seals, Arctocephalus tropicalis.. Can. J. Zool. 82:1043-1050.
de Bruyn, P.J.N., M.N. Bester, S. Mecenero, S.P. Kirkman, J.-P. Roux and N.T.W. Klages, 2003 Temporal variation of cephalopods in the diet of Cape fur seals in Namibia. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 33(2):85-96.
Dickie, G.S. and S.M. Dawson, 2003 Age, growth, and reproduction in New Zealand fur seals. Marine Mammal Science 19(1):173-185.
dos Santos, R.A. and M. Haimovici, 2001 Cephalopods in the diet of marine mammals caught stranded or incidentally caught along southeastern and southern Brazil (21-34° S). Fish. Res. 52(1-2):99-112.
FAO-FIES, 2007 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 03/07/2008].
Fea, N.I., R. Harcourt and C. Lalas, 1999 Seasonal variation in the diet of New Zealand fur seals (Arctocephalus forsteri) at Otago Peninsula, New Zealand. Wildlife Research 26:147-160.
Felix, F., P. Jimenez, J. Falconi and O. Echeverry, 2007 New records and first births of the Galapagos fur seal, Arctocephalus galapagoensis (Heller, 1904), from the mainland coast of Ecuador. Revista de Biologia Marina Y Oceanografia 42(1):77-82.
Ford, J.K.B., G.M. Ellis, L.G. Barrett-Lennard, A.B. Morton, R.S. Palm and K.C. Balcomb III, 1998 Dietary specialization in two sympatric populations of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in coastal British Columbia and adjacent waters. Can. J. Zool. 76:1456-1471.
Fossi, M.C., L. Marsili, M. Junin, H. Castello, J.A. Lorenzani, S. Casini, S. Savelli and C. Leonzio, 1997 Use of nondestructive biomarkers and residue analysis to assess the health status of endangered species of pinnipeds in the southwest Atlantic. Marine Pollution Bulletin 34(3):157-162.
Francis, J.M. and D.J. Boness, 1991 The effect of thermoregulatory behaviour on the mating system of the JuanFernandez fur seal, Arctocephalus philippii. Behaviour 119(1-2):104-126.
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Gaichas, S.K., 2006 Development and application of ecosystem models to support fishery sustainability: A case study for the Gulf of Alaska. A dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, University of Washington Graduate School, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, 371 pp.
Gallo-Reynoso, J.P. and A.L. Figueroa-Carranza, 1996 Size and weight of Guadalupe fur seals. Marine Mammal Science 12(2):318-321.
Gardiner, K. and T.A. Dick, 2010 Arctic cephalopod distributions and their associated predators. Polar Research 29(2):209-227.
Garrigue, C., 2007 Marine mammals of New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands checklist of the species. Payri, C.E., Richer de Forges B. (eds). Compendium of marine species of New Caledonia, Documents Scientifiques et Techniques.
Gaydos, J.K. and N.A. Brown, 2009 Species of concern within the Salish Sea marine ecosystem: changesfrom 2002 to 2008. In Proceedings of the 2009 Puget Sound Georgia Basin Ecosystem Conference e 8 to 11 February 2009. Seattle, WA: Environment Canada and the Puget Sound Partnership. 10 p.
Gaydos, J.K. and S.F. Pearson, 2011 Birds and mammals that depend on the Salish Sea: a compilation. Northwestern Naturalist 92(2):79-94.
George-Nascimento, M., R. Bustamante and C. Oyarzun, 1985 Feeding ecology of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens: food contents and food selectivity. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 21:135-143.
Goto, Y., A. Wada, N. Hoshino, T. Takashima, M. Mitsuhashi, K. Hattori and O. Yamamura, 2017 Diets of Steller sea lions off the coast of Hokkaido, Japan: An inter-decadal and geographic comparison. Marine Ecology 38(6):e12477.
Guénette, S.S., J.J.S. Heymans, V. Christensen and A.W. Trites, 2006 Ecosystem models show combined effects of fishing predation, competition and ocean productivity on Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 63:2495-2517.
Guinet, C., L. Dubroca, M.A. Lea, S. Goldsworthy, Y. Cherel, G. Duhamel, F. Bonadonna and J.-P. Donnay, 2001 Spatial distribution of foraging in female Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella in relation to oceanographic variables: a scale-dependent approach using geographic information systems. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 219:251-264.
Haimovici, M., N.E. Brunetti, P.G. Rodhouse, J. Csirke and R.H. Leta, 1998 Chapter 3: Illex argentinus. pp. 376:27-58. In P.G. Rodhouse, E.G. Dawe and R.K. O'Dor (eds.) FAO Fisheries Technical Paper: Squid recruitment dynamics. The genus Illex as a model, the commercial Illex species and influences on variability.
Hanni, K.D., D.J. Long, R.E. Jones, P. Pyle and L.E. Morgan, 1997 Sightings and strandings of Guadalupe fur seals in Central and Nothern California, 1988-1995. Journal of Mammalogy 78(2):684-690.
Harcourt, R.G., C.J.A. Bradshaw, K. Dickson and L.S. Davis, 2002 Foraging ecology of a generalist predator, the female New Zealand fur seal. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 227:11-24.
How, R.A., N.K. Cooper and J.L. Bannister, 2001 Checklist of the mammlas of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australia Museum Supplement 63:91-98.
Hunter, A.M.J., 2006 A multiple regression model fror predicting the energy requirements of marine mammals. The University of British Columbia, Canada. MS Thesis. 299 p.
Ikemoto, T., T. Kunito, I. Watanabe, G. Yasunaga, N. Baba, N. Miyazaki, E.A. Petrov and S. Tanabe, 2004 Comparison of trace element acculumation in Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica), Caspian seals (Pusa caspica) and northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus). Environmental Pollution 127:83-97.
IUCN, 2010 2010 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.2. Downloaded in August 2010.
IUCN, 2018 The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2018-2. . Downloaded on 19 November 2018.
Jefferson, T.A., S. Leatherwood and M.A. Webber, 1993 FAO species Identification Guide: Marine Mammals of the World. Rome, FAO. 320 p. + 587 figures.
Klages, N.T.W. and M.N. Bester, 1998 Fish prey of fur seals Arctocephalus spp. at subantarctic Marion Island. Mar. Biol. 131(3):559-566.
Lea, M.-A., C. Guinet, Y. Cherel, M. Hindell, L. Dubroca and S. Thalmann, 2008 Colony-based foraging segregation by Antarctic fur seals at the Kerguelen Archipelago. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 358:273-287.
Lea, M.-A., Y. Cherel, C. Guinet and P.D. Nichols, 2002 Antarctic fur seals foraging in the Polar Frontal Zone: inter-annual shifts in diet as shown from fecal and fatty acid analyses. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 245:281-297.
Lea, M.-A., Y. Cherel, C. Guinet and P.D. Nichols, 2002 Antarctic fur seals foraging in the Polar Frontal Zone: inter-annual shifts in diet as shown from fecal and fatty acid analyses. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 245:281-297.
Lima, M. and E. Paez, 1995 Growth and reproductive patterns in the South American fur seal. Journal of Mammalogy 76(4):1249-1255.
Long, D.J. and L. Gilbert, 1996 California sea lion predation of chicks of the common murre. Journal of Field Ornithology 68(1):152-154.
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Mattlin, R.H., 1978 Population biology, thermoregulation and site preference of the New Zealand fur seal, Arctocephalus forsteri, on the Open Bay Islands, New Zealand. Ph.D. thesis, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand. 179 pp.
McIntosh, R.R., B. Page and S.D. Goldsworthy, 2006 Dietary analysis of regugutates and stomach samples from free-living Australian sea lions. Wildlife Research 33:661-669.
McKenzie, J., B. Page, S.D. Goldsworthy and M.A. Hindell, 2007 Growth strategies of New Zealand fur seals in southern Australia. Journal of Zoology 272:377-389.
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Phillips, A.V., 2003 Behavioral cues used in reunions between mother and pup South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis). Journal of Mammalogy 84(2):524-535.
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