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References used for species in the Family Stichopodidae
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[ n = 181 ] 
Akamine, J., 2005 The status of the sea cucumber fisheries and trade in Japan: past and present. pp 39-47 In Session I - Status of resources and utilization. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper.
Akamine, J., 2001 Holothurian exploitation in the Philippines: continuities and discontinuities. Tropics 10(4):591-607.
Alvarado, J.J. and F.A. Solís-Marín, 2013 Echinoderm research and diversity in Latin America. Springer, Berlin, 140p.
Alvarado, J.J. and J. Cortés, 2009 Echinoderms. pp. 421-434. In I.S. Wehrtmann, J. Cortés (eds.) Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica, Central America. Springer 538 p.
Ameziane, N., 2007 Echinodermata of New Caledonia. pp. 337-347. In Payri, C.E., Richer de Forges, B. (eds.), Compendium of Marine Species of New Caledonia. Doc. Sci. Tech. II7, seconde édition, IRD Nouméa.
An, Z., Y. Dong and S. Dong, 2007 Temperature effects on growth-ration relationships of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Aquaculture 272(2007):644-648.
Andréfouët, S., A. Tagliaferro, L. Chabran-Poete, J. Campanozzi-Tarahu, F. Tertre, G. Haumani and A. Stein, 2019 An assessment of commercial sea cucumber populations in French Polynesia just after the 2012 moratorium. SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 39:8-17.
Andrew, N. and M. Francis, 2003 The living reef. The ecology of New Zealand's rocky reefs. Craig Potton Publishing, New Zealand. 283pp.
Antokhina, T.I. and T.A. Britayev, 2012 Sea stars and their macrosymbionts in the Bay of Nhatrang, Southern Vietnam. Paleontological Journal 46(8):894-908.
Backe, N., S. Davies, K. Conley, G. Kosmider, G. Rasmussen, H. Ibey and K. Ladell, 2011 Race Rocks (XwaYeN) proposed marine protected area ecosystem overview and assessment report. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2949:30p.
Barria, C., M. Coll and J. Navarro, 2015 Unravelling the ecological role and trophic relationships of uncommon and threatened elasmobranchs in the western Mediterranean Sea (Supplement). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 539:225-240.
Batoy, C.B., 2050 Survey of the marine macrobenthic invertebrate fauna of coastal waters in selected places in Leyte and vicinity. Department of Plant Protection, Visayas State College of Agricultre, ViSCA, Baybay, Leyte 7127. pp 1-284.
Benzait, H., I. Khodja, D.L. Soualili and K. Mezali, 2020 Note on Parastichopus regalis (Cuvier, 1817) from the Sidi-Medjdoub area of Mostaganem, Algeria. SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 40:43-45.
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum, 2005 Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2005 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
Branch, G.M., C.L. Griffiths, M.L. Branch and L. Beckley, 2005 Two oceans: a guide to marine life in southern Africa. Struik Publishers, Cape Town, 360 p.
Bright, T.J., 2010 A list of species from Glover's Reef Atoll, Belize. Wildlife Conservation Society. [Accessed 22/11/2010].
Bruce, A.J., 1982 The shrimps associated with Indo-West Pacific echinoderms, with the description of a new species in the genus Periclimenes Costa, 1844 (Crustacea: Pontoniinae). Memoirs-The Australian Museum (16):191-216.
Bruce, A.J., 2005 Pontoniine shrimps from Papua New Guinea, with designation of two new genera, Cainonia and Colemonia (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 51(2):333-383.
Chammem, H., J.B. Souissi and A. Perez-Ruzafa, 2019 Checklist with first records for the echinoderms of northern Tunisia (central Mediterranean Sea). Scientia Marina 83(3):277-288.
Chen, L., Q. Li and J. Yang, 2008 Microsatellite genetic variation in wild and hatchery populations of the sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) from northern China. Aquaculture Research 2008:1-9.
Cheung, W.L., R. Watson and D. Pauly, 2013 Signature of ocean warming in global fisheries catch. Nature 497:365-368.
Choo, P.S., 2008 Populations status, fisheries and trade of sea cucumbers in Asia. In V. Toral-Granda, A. Lovatelli and M. Vasconcellos (eds). Sea cucumbers. A global review of fisheries and trade. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper. No. 516. Rome, FAO. pp. 81-118.
CITES, 2009 Appendices I, II and III valid from 22 May 2009. UNEP.
CITES, 2010 Appendices I, II and III valid from 23 June 2010. UNEP.
CITES, 2011 Appendices I, II and III valid from 27 April 2011. UNEP.
CITES, 2012 Appendices I, II and III valid from 3 April 2012. UNEP.
CITES, 2013 Appendices I, II and III valid from 12 June 2013. UNEP.
CITES, 2014 Appendices I, II and III valid from 24 June 2014. UNEP.
CITES, 2015 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 05 February 2015. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. Http:// [Accessed 04/11/2015].
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2016 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 10 March 2016. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 23/06/2016].
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2017 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 04 April 2017. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 01/08/2017].
CITES, UNEP-WCMC, 2021 The Checklist of CITES Species Website. Appendices I, II and III valid from 14 February 2021. CITES Secretariat, Geneva, Switzerland. Compiled by UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK. [Accessed 16 February 2021].
Clark, A.M and F.W.E. Rowe, 1971 Monograph of shallow-water Indo-West Pacific echinoderms. Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History): London.
Collin, R., M.C. Díaz, J. Norenburg, R.M. Rocha, J.A. Sánchez, M. Schulze, A. Schwartz and A. Valdés, 2005 Photographic identification guide to some common marine invertebrates of Bocas Del Toro, Panama. Caribbean Journal of Science. 41(3):638-707.
Conand, C., 1998 Holothurians (sea cucumbers, Class Holothuroidea). p. 1157-1190. In Carpenter, K.E. and V.H. Niem (eds.) FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 2. Cephalopods, crustaceans, holothurians and sharks. FAO Rome.
Conand, C., 1989 Les Holothuries Aspidochirotes du lagon de Nouvelle-Calédonie: biologie, écologie et exploitation. Études et Thèses, O.R.S.T.O.M., Paris: 393 p.
Conand, C., 1988 Comparison between estimations of growth and mortality of two stichopoid holothurians: Thelenota ananas and Stichopus chloronotus (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). p. 661-665. In Proceedings of the 6th International Coral Reef Symposium, Townsville, Australia 1988. Vol. 2.
Conand, C., 1993 Reproductive biology of the holothurians from the major communities of the New Caledonian lagoon. Mariine Biology 116(3):439-450.
Conand, C., 1981 Sexual cycle of three commercially important Holothurian species (Echinodermata) from the lagoon of New Caledonia. Bulletin of Marine Science 31(3):523-543.
Conand, C. and N.A. Muthiga, 2007 Commercial sea cucumbers: a review for the western Indian ocean. WIOMSA book series no. 5 v + 66 pp.
Cummins, P. and R. Haigh, 2010 Ecosystem status and trends report for North coast and Hecate Strait ecozone. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat, Research Document 2010/045:67p.
Cutress, B.M. and J.E. Miller, 1982 Eostichopus arnesoni new genus and species (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from the Caribbean. Bull. Mar. Sci. 32(3):715-722.
de Loma, T.L., 2015 La biodiversité côtière des îles Australes. p. 57-66 Salvat, B.; Bambridge, T.; Tanret, D.; Petit, J. 2015 Environnement marin des îles Australes, Polynésie française. Institut Récifs Coralliens Pacifique, CRIOBE et The Pew Charitable Trusts Polynésie française. Polynésie française, Tahiti, p. 342.
DiSalvo, L.H., J.E. Randall and A. Cea, 1988 Ecological reconnaissance of the Easter Island sublittoral marine environment. National Geographic Research 4(4):451-473.
Dissanayake, D.C.T., S. Athukorala and C. Amarasiri, 2010 Present statis of the sea cucumber fishery in Sri Lanka. SPC Beche-de-mer Information Bulletin 30:14-20.
Dong, Y., S. Dong, X. Tian, F. Wang and M. Zhang, 2006 Effects of diel temperature fluctuations on growth, oxygen consumption and proximate body composition in the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus Selenka. Aquaculture 255:514-521.
Dubrovskii, S.V. and V.A. Sergeenko, 2002 Distribution pattern of far eastern sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in Busse Lagoon (Southern Sakhalin). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 28(2):87-93.
Dubrovskii, S.V. and V.A. Sergeenko, 2002 Distribution pattern of far eastern sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus in Busse Lagoon (Southern Sakhalin). Russian Journal of Marine Biology 28(2):87-93.
Elahi, R., 2012 Diversity and structure of subtidal rock walls in the Salish Sea: the roles of grazing, oceanography, and long-term change. Biology, Doctor of Philosophy, University of Washington, 151pp.
Eriksson, H., M. Byrne and M. de la Torre-Castro, 2012 Sea cucumber (Aspidochirotida) community,distribution and habitat utilization on the reefs of Mayotte, Western Indian ocean. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 452:159-170.
FAO, 2011 Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme. Stichopus japonicus. Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme. Text by Yuichi Sakai. In FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [online]. Rome. Updated 1 January 2011. [Cited 7 May 2015].
FAO-FIES, 2007 Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Information System (ASFIS) species list. Retrieved from, [accessed 03/07/2008].
Ferriss, B. E., J. C. Reum, P. S. McDonald, D. M. Farrell and C. J. Harvey, 2016 Evaluating trophic and non-trophic effects of shellfish aquaculture in a coastal estuarine foodweb. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil 73(2): 429-440.
Fischer, W., I. Sousa, A. de Freitas, J.M. Poutiers, W. Schneider, T.C. Borges, J.P. Féral and A. Massinga, 1990 Fichas FAO de identificação de espécies para actividades de pesca. Guía de campo das espécies comerciais marinhas e de águas salobras de Moçambique. FAO. Rome. 424 p.
Fishelson, L., 1971 Ecology and distribution of the benthic fauna in the shallow waters of the Red Sea. Mar. Biol. 10:113-133.
Florida Museum of Natural History, 2014 Stichopus ocellatus Massin, Zulfigar, Hwai, Boss, 2002. Dataset: Invertebrate Zoology, Accessed via on 2015-07-14.
Floriday Keys National Marine Sanctuary, 2004 Floriday Keys National Marine Sanctuary Species List. Floriday Keys National Marine Sanctuary Resources [accessed 09/07/2008].
Gavrilova, G.S., 1995 The temperature range of life activity of far eastern trepang Stichopus japonicus in the Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan. Oceanology 35(3):392-394.
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