Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common periwinkle
Littorina littorea
photo by FAO

Family:  Littorinidae (periwinkles)
Max. size:  4.2 cm DL (male/unsexed); max. reported age: 5 years
Environment:  benthic; brackish; marine; depth range 0 - 60 m
Distribution:  Northeast Atlantic: from west Greenland to Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea, down to Portugal. Said to occur in the Mediterranean during the Pleistocene with records up to the Persian Gulf. Distribution in Iceland possibly true due to its occurrence up to west Greenland. Temperate to polar.
Biology:  Found in intertidal and subtidal flats (Refs. 2823, 106899). In shallow and deep subtidal mussel beds of Mytilus edulis. Occurs in both hard substrates and in soft bottoms, particularly on stones, boulders, on muddy and sandy tidal flats. Also macrophytes such as Fucus and Zostera spp. Herbivorous grazer, feeding on microalgal films (diatoms) from the shell surfaces of mussels, sporelings of ephemeral algae and young barnacles (Ref. 106899).
IUCN Red List Status: Not Evaluated (N.E.) Ref. 123251)
Threat to humans: 
Country info:   

Entered by: Sorongon-Yap, Patricia - 11.12.05
Modified by: Parducho, Vina Angelica - 24.02.15
Checked by: Rosenberg, Gary - 12.08.11

Source and more info: For personal, classroom, and other internal use only. Not for publication.

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