Ecology of Spirula spirula
Main Ref. Jereb, P. and C.F.E. Roper (eds.), 2005
Remarks Migrates from 550 to 1000 meters during the day, and 100 to 300 meters at night (Ref. 106682). Young is captured at depths 1,000 to 1,750 m, which suggests that females lay eggs on bottom of continental slopes (Ref. 1695). Dead shells washed up on the beaches often in large numbers (Ref. 88739).

Aquatic zones / Water bodies

Marine - Neritic Marine - Oceanic Brackishwater Freshwater
Marine zones / Brackish and freshwater bodies
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Spirula spirula may be found.


Substrate Pelagic;
Substrate Ref. Springsteen, F.J. and F.M. Leobrera, 1986
Special habitats
Special habitats Ref.


Associated with
Association remarks


Feeding type plants/detritus+animals (troph. 2.2-2.79)
Feeding type Ref. Ohkouchi, N., R. Tsuda, Y. Chikaraishi and K. Tanabe, 2013
Feeding habit
Feeding habit Ref.

Trophic Level(s)

Estimation method original sample unfished population Remark
Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition 2.50 Trophic level was estimated to be 2.5-2.8 based on amino acid nitrogen isotopic analysis.
From individual food items 3.26 0.40 Trophic level estimated from a number of food items using a randomized resampling routine.
Ref. Ohkouchi, N., R. Tsuda, Y. Chikaraishi and K. Tanabe, 2013
(e.g. 9948)
(e.g. cnidaria)
Entered by Pan-Saniano, Marianne on 09.25.06
Modified by Sorongon-Yap, Patricia on 09.18.17
Comments & Corrections
Back to Search
cfm script by ,  ,  php script by , 2/5/2008 ,  last modified by sortiz, 08/24/17