Ecology of Holothuria atra
 
Main Ref. Conand, C., 1998
distribution
Marine - Neritic
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
Marine - Oceanic
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
Brackishwater
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
Freshwater
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Holothuria atra may be found.
Remarks A common shallow-water species, rarely found at depths of more than 20 m, mostly on inner and outer reef flats and back reefs or shallow coastal lagoons; abundant on sandy-muddy grounds with rubble or coral patches and in seagrass beds (Ref. 122). Body is often almost completely covered by sand grains (Ref. 102838). The mean population density is about 0.5/square meter, but can exceed 4/square meter. Inshore shallow-water populations are denser, composed of smaller individuals, while deeper or outer reef populations, individuals are more scattered and with larger sizes (Ref. 122). Feeds on Halimeda sp. (Ref. 118). Known to release a wine-colored exudate when rubbed vigorously (Ref. 85218).

Substrate

Substrate Benthic: mobile; Soft Bottom: sand; mud; Hard Bottom: rubble;
Substrate Ref. Conand, C., 1998
Special habitats Beds: sea grass; Coral Reefs: reef flats; lagoons;
Special habitats Ref. Kerr, A.M., K. Netchy and A.M. Gawel, 2006

associations

Ref. Conand, C., 1998
associations
Associated with
Association remarks
Parasitism

feeding

feeding type mainly plants/detritus (troph. 2-2.19)
feeding type ref James, D.B., 2001
feeding habit grazing on aquatic plants
feeding habit ref James, D.B., 2001
trophic level(s)
original sample unfished population Remark
estimation method Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition
Ref.
From individual food items 2.00 0.00 Trophic level and s.e. inferred from exclusive plant/detritus food items.
(e.g. 9948)
(e.g. cnidaria)
Entered by Dar, Christine on 12.15.05
Modified by Polido, Rubyann Robelle on 04.21.16
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