Ecology of Phoebastria immutabilis
Main Ref. SAUP Database, 2006
Remarks Occurs over open ocean (Refs. 356, 122680). Mainly feeds at night and often far from breeding colony. Forages with conspecifics, but rarely with other species. Seizes prey from the surface while sitting on the water. Scavenges on carrion and follows fishing boats. Diet consists mainly of squid as well as deep-water crustaceans, fish and flyingfish eggs (Ref. 122680).

Aquatic zones / Water bodies

Marine - Neritic Marine - Oceanic Brackishwater Freshwater
Marine zones / Brackish and freshwater bodies
  • supra-littoral zone
  • littoral zone
  • sublittoral zone
  • epipelagic
  • mesopelagic
  • epipelagic
  • abyssopelagic
  • hadopelagic
  • estuaries/lagoons/brackish seas
  • mangroves
  • marshes/swamps
  • rivers/streams
  • lakes/ponds
  • caves
  • exclusively in caves
Highighted items on the list are where Phoebastria immutabilis may be found.


Substrate Ref.
Special habitats
Special habitats Ref.


Associated with
Association remarks


Feeding type mainly animals (troph. 2.8 and up)
Feeding type Ref. State of hawaii, 2020
Feeding habit hunting macrofauna (predator)
Feeding habit Ref. State of hawaii, 2020

Trophic Level(s)

Estimation method original sample unfished population Remark
Troph s.e. Troph s.e.
From diet composition
From individual food items 4.19 0.46 Trophic level estimated from a number of food items using a randomized resampling routine.
(e.g. 9948)
(e.g. cnidaria)
Entered by Karpouzi, Vasiliki on 05.31.07
Modified by Polido, Rubyann Robelle on 11.06.20
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