Holothuroidea | Holothuriida
Environment: milieu / climate zone / depth range / distribution range
Reef-associated; depth range 0 - 30 m (Ref. 122). Tropical
Indo-Pacific, excluding the Persian Gulf and Hawaii.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 45.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 122); common length : 35.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 122); max. published weight: 1.3 kg (Ref. 122)
Mean live weight 700 to 1,300 g; body-wall thickness 0.4 cm. Body sub cylindrical, arched dorsally (bivium) and slightly flattened ventrally (trivium). White conical papillae sparsely distributed on bivium; podia on trivium long and large, their calcareous disc around 240 micrometer in diameter. Mouth ventral, surrounded by 25 large, black brown dots and numerous small black spots; trivium grey, also with small black spots. Spicules on dorsal and ventral tegument with pseudo-tables and rosettes; pseudo-tables consisting of large base with a large hole, and a spiny spire; rosettes numerous, those in the tegument simple, but more complicated in the dorsal papillae and ventral podia; also present around anus are rods, small plates, and tables with very spiny crown; tentacles containing a few rods and large plates derived from rosettes.
Maximum depth from Ref. 85218. Not harvested for b├¬che-de-mer production (Ref. 122). A coral reef species rarely found in depths of more than 25 m; mostly found on reef slopes close to the coast (Ref. 122, 85218); abundant on corals mixed with calcareous red algae. Population densities generally less than 0.005 per square meter (Ref. 122). In times of considerable irritation, this animal ejects Cuvierian tubules (Ref. 85218). Feeds on the surface of coral colonies and sponges (Ref. 101700).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Holothuroidea are gonochoric and have only one gonad. Spawning and fertilization are both external and some exhibit brooding. Life cycle: Embryos develop into planktotrophic larvae (auricularia) then into doliolaria (barrel-shaped stage) which later metamorphose into juvenile sea cucumbers.
Conand, C. 1998. (Ref. 122)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 126983)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: of no interest
| FishSource |
Estimates based on models
): 26.9 - 29.3, mean 28.6 (based on 2892 cells).
Low to moderate vulnerability (35 of 100).